Record Information
Version1.0
Creation date2010-04-08 22:04:37 UTC
Update date2015-10-09 22:31:09 UTC
Primary IDFDB000569
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB NameAspartame
DescriptionCompd. with 100 times the sweetness of sucrose. Artificial sweetener permitted in foods in EU at 300-5500 ppm. Also permitted in USA. Widely used in foods, beverages and pharmaceutical formulations Aspartame (L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) is a low-calorie sweetener used to sweeten a wide variety of low- and reduced-calorie foods and beverages, including low-calorie tabletop sweeteners. Aspartame is composed of two amino acids, aspartic acid and phenylalanine, as the methyl ester. Aspartic acid and phenylalanine are also found naturally in protein containing foods, including meats, grains and dairy products. Methyl esters are also found naturally in many foods such as fruits and vegetable and their juices. Upon digestion, aspartame breaks down into three components (aspartic acid, phenylalanine and methanol), which are then absorbed into the blood and used in normal body processes. Neither aspartame nor its components accumulates in the body. These components are used in the body in the same ways as when they are derived from common foods.; Aspartame is an artificial sweetener. It is 200 times sweeter than sugar in typical concentrations, without the high energy value of sugar. While aspartame, like other peptides, has a caloric value of 4 kilocalories (17 kilojoules) per gram, the quantity of aspartame needed to produce a sweet taste is so small that its caloric contribution is negligible, which makes it a popular sweetener for those trying to avoid calories from sugar. The taste of aspartame is not identical to that of sugar: the sweetness of aspartame has a slower onset and longer duration than that of sugar. Blends of aspartame with acesulfame potassium?usually listed in ingredients as acesulfame K?are alleged[who?] to taste more like sugar, and to be sweeter than either substitute used alone.; Aspartame is the name for an artificial, non-carbohydrate sweetener, aspartyl-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester; This sweetener is marketed under a number of trademark names, including Equal, NutraSweet, and Canderel, and is an ingredient of approximately 6,000 consumer foods and beverages sold worldwide, including (but not limited to) diet sodas and other soft drinks, instant breakfasts, breath mints, cereals, sugar-free chewing gum, cocoa mixes, frozen desserts, gelatin desserts, juices, laxatives, chewable vitamins supplements, milk drinks, pharmaceutical drugs and supplements, shake mixes, tabletop sweeteners, teas, instant coffees, topping mixes, wine coolers and yogurt. It is provided as a table condiment in some countries. However, aspartame is not always suitable for baking because it often breaks down when heated and loses much of its sweetness. Aspartame is also one of the main sugar substitutes used by people with diabetes.; i.e., the methyl ester of the dipeptide of the amino acids aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is marketed under a number of trademark names, such as Equal, and Canderel, and is an ingredient of approximately 6,000 consumer foods and beverages sold worldwide. It is commonly used in diet soft drinks, and is often provided as a table condiment. It is also used in some brands of chewable vitamin supplements. In the European Union, it is also known under the E number (additive code) E951. Aspartame is also one of the sugar substitutes used by diabetics. Upon ingestion, aspartame breaks down into several constituent chemicals, including the naturally-occurring essential amino acid phenylalanine which is a health hazard to the few people born with phenylketonuria, a congenital inability to process phenylalanine. Aspartic acid is an amino acid commonly found in foods. Approximately 40% of aspartame (by mass) is broken down into aspartic acid. Because aspartame is metabolized and absorbed very quickly (unlike aspartic acid-containing proteins in foods), it is known that aspartame could spike blood plasma levels of aspartate. Aspartic acid is in a class of chemicals known as excitotoxins. Abnormally high levels of excitotoxins have been shown in hundreds of animals studies to cause damage to areas of the brain unprotected by the blood-brain barrier and a variety of chronic diseases arising out of this neurotoxicity.
CAS Number22839-47-0
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymSource
1-Methyl N-L-a-aspartyl-L-phenylalanateGenerator
1-Methyl N-L-a-aspartyl-L-phenylalanic acidGenerator
1-Methyl N-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenylalanatebiospider
1-Methyl N-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenylalanic acidGenerator
1-Methyl N-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninebiospider
1-Methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanateGenerator
1-Methyl N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanic acidGenerator
3-amino-N-(a-Carboxyphenethyl)succinamate N-methyl esterGenerator
3-amino-N-(a-Carboxyphenethyl)succinamic acid N-methyl esterGenerator
3-amino-N-(a-Methoxycarbonylphenethyl) succinamateGenerator
3-amino-N-(a-Methoxycarbonylphenethyl) succinamic acidGenerator
3-amino-N-(alpha-Carboxyphenethyl)succinamate N-methyl esterGenerator
3-amino-N-(alpha-Carboxyphenethyl)succinamic acid N-methyl esterChEBI
3-amino-N-(alpha-Methoxycarbonylphenethyl) succinamateGenerator
3-Amino-N-(alpha-methoxycarbonylphenethyl) succinamic acidbiospider
3-amino-N-(α-carboxyphenethyl)succinamate N-methyl esterGenerator
3-amino-N-(α-carboxyphenethyl)succinamic acid N-methyl esterGenerator
3-amino-N-(α-methoxycarbonylphenethyl) succinamateGenerator
3-amino-N-(α-methoxycarbonylphenethyl) succinamic acidGenerator
a-APMdb_source
APMbiospider
Asp-phe-omebiospider
Aspartambiospider
Aspartame (NF/inn)biospider
Aspartame [usan:ban:inn]biospider
Aspartame, l,l-alpha-biospider
Aspartamobiospider
Aspartamumbiospider
Aspartylphenylalanine methyl esterbiospider
Candereldb_source
Dipeptide sweetenerbiospider
e 951HMDB
E951db_source
Equalbiospider
L-Aspartyl-L-3-phenylalanine methyl esterbiospider
L-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine methyl esterbiospider
L-aspartyl-l-phenylalanyl methyl esterbiospider
L-Phenylalanine, L-alpha-aspartyl-, 2-methyl esterbiospider
L-Phenylalanine, N-L-alpha-aspartyl-, 1-methyl esterbiospider
Methyl aspartylphenylalanatebiospider
Methyl aspartylphenylalaninedb_source
Methyl l-alpha-aspartyl-l-phenylalanatebiospider
Methyl l-aspartyl-l-phenylalaninebiospider
Methyl n-l-alpha-aspartyl-l-phenylalaninatebiospider
N-a-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, 9CIdb_source
N-L-alpha-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl esterbiospider
Nutrasweetdb_source
Pal sweetbiospider
Palsweet dietbiospider
SC-18862db_source
Sweet dipeptidebiospider
Tri-sweetbiospider
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.44 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.1ALOGPS
logP-1.7ChemAxon
logS-2.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.14ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area122.21 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity73.74 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability29.37 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC14H18N2O5
IUPAC name3-amino-3-[(1-methoxy-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl)-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl]propanoic acid
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C14H18N2O5/c1-21-14(20)11(7-9-5-3-2-4-6-9)16-13(19)10(15)8-12(17)18/h2-6,10-11H,7-8,15H2,1H3,(H,16,19)(H,17,18)
InChI KeyInChIKey=IAOZJIPTCAWIRG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Isomeric SMILESCOC(=O)C(CC1=CC=CC=C1)NC(=O)C(N)CC(O)=O
Average Molecular Weight294
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight294
Classification
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as peptides. These are compounds containing an amide derived from two or more amino carboxylic acid molecules (the same or different) by formation of a covalent bond from the carbonyl carbon of one to the nitrogen atom of another.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha peptide
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid ester
  • Alpha-amino acid amide
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • N-substituted-alpha-amino acid
  • Fatty acid ester
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Benzenoid
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Fatty amide
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Methyl ester
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxamide group
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
PropertyValueReference
Physical stateSolid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionC 57.14%; H 6.16%; N 9.52%; O 27.18%DFC
Melting PointMp 245-247° (double Mp) (235-236° dec.)DFC
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical Rotation[a]22D +32 (c, 1 in AcOH)DFC
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
ChemSpider ID118630
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL171679
KEGG Compound IDC11045
Pubchem Compound ID134601
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI ID2877
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDDB00168
HMDB IDHMDB01894
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDBDS15-X:BDS15-X
EAFUS ID263
Dr. Duke IDNot Available
BIGG IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
HET IDPME
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDAspartame
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
FoodReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / BioactivitiesNot Available
EnzymesNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
FlavoursNot Available
Files
MSDSshow
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference