Record Information
Version1.0
Creation date2010-04-08 22:05:41 UTC
Update date2019-11-27 17:08:36 UTC
Primary IDFDB003191
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB NameTaurine
DescriptionEssential nutrient obtained from diet and by in vivo synthysis from methionine and cysteine. Present in meats, fish, legumes, human milk, molluscs and other foods. Dietary supplement, e.g. in Red Bull drink. Taurine is a sulfur amino acid like methionine, cystine, cysteine and homocysteine. It is a lesser-known amino acid because it is not incorporated into the structural building blocks of protein. Yet taurine is an essential amino acid in pre-term and newborn infants of humans and many other species. Adults can synthesize their own taurine, yet are probably dependent in part on dietary taurine. Taurine is abundant in the brain, heart, breast, gallbladder and kidney and has important roles in health and disease in these organs. Taurine has many diverse biological functions serving as a neurotransmitter in the brain, a stabilizer of cell membranes and a facilitator in the transport of ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Taurine is highly concentrated in animal and fish protein, which are good sources of dietary taurine. It can be synthesized by the body from cysteine when vitamin B6 is present. Deficiency of taurine occurs in premature infants and neonates fed formula milk, and in various disease states. Inborn errors of taurine metabolism have been described. OMIM 168605, an unusual neuropsychiatric disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion through 3 generations of a family. Symptoms began late in the fifth decade in 6 affected persons and death occurred after 4 to 6 years. The earliest and most prominent symptom was mental depression not responsive to antidepressant drugs or electroconvulsive therapy. Sleep disturbances, exhaustion and marked weight loss were features. Parkinsonism developed later, and respiratory failure occurred terminally. OMIM 145350 describes congestive cardiomyopathy and markedly elevated urinary taurine levels (about 5 times normal). Other family members had late or holosystolic mitral valve prolapse and elevated urinary taurine values (about 2.5 times normal). In 2 with mitral valve prolapse, congestive cardiomyopathy eventually developed while the amounts of urinary taurine doubled. Taurine, after GABA, is the second most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Its inhibitory effect is one source of taurine's anticonvulsant and antianxiety properties. It also lowers glutamic acid in the brain, and preliminary clinical trials suggest taurine may be useful in some forms of epilepsy. Taurine in the brain is usually associated with zinc or manganese. The amino acids alanine and glutamic acid, as well as pantothenic acid, inhibit taurine metabolism while vitamins A and B6, zinc and manganese help build taurine. Cysteine and B6 are the nutrients most directly involved in taurine synthesis. Taurine levels have been found to decrease significantly in many depressed patients. One reason that the findings are not entirely clear is because taurine is often elevated in the blood of epileptics who need it. It is often difficult to distinguish compensatory changes in human biochemistry from true metabolic or deficiency disease. Low levels of taurine are found in retinitis pigmentosa. Taurine deficiency in experimental animals produces degeneration of light-sensitive cells. Therapeutic applications of taurine to eye disease are likely to be forthcoming. Taurine has many important metabolic roles. Supplements can stimulate prolactin and insulin release. The parathyroid gland makes a peptide hormone called glutataurine (glutamic acid-taurine), which further demonstrates taurine's role in endocrinology. Taurine increases bilirubin and cholesterol excretion in bile, critical to normal gallbladder function. It seems to inhibit the effect of morphine and potentiates the effects of opiate antagonists. Low plasma taurine levels have been found in a variety of conditions, i.e., depression, hypertension, hypothyroidism, gout, institutionalized patients, infertility, obesity, kidney failure and others. (http://www.dcnutrition.com/AminoAcids/); Taurine is an essential dietary requirement for feline health, since cats cannot synthesize the compound. The absence of taurine causes a cat's retina to slowly degenerate, causing eye problems and (eventually) irreversible blindness ? a condition known as central retinal degeneration (CRD), as well as hair loss and tooth decay. It was discovered in 1987 that taurine deficiency can also cause feline dilated cardiomyopathy. Unlike CRD, the condition is reversible with supplementation. Taurine is now a requirement of the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) and any dry or wet food product labeled approved by the AAFCO should have a minimum of 0.1% taurine in dry food and 0.2% in wet food.; Taurine, or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is an organic acid. It is also a major constituent of bile and can be found in the lower intestine and in small amounts in the tissues of many animals, including humans. Taurine is a derivative of the sulfur-containing (sulfhydryl) amino acid, cysteine. Taurine is one of the few known naturally occurring sulfonic acids.
CAS Number107-35-7
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymSource
2-Aminoethanesulfonic acidChEBI
2-Aminoethyl sulfonateChEBI
Aminoethylsulfonic acidChEBI
beta-Aminoethylsulfonic acidChEBI
2-AminoethanesulfonateGenerator
2-AminoethanesulphonateGenerator
2-Aminoethanesulphonic acidGenerator
2-Aminoethyl sulfonic acidGenerator
2-Aminoethyl sulphonateGenerator
2-Aminoethyl sulphonic acidGenerator
AminoethylsulfonateGenerator
AminoethylsulphonateGenerator
Aminoethylsulphonic acidGenerator
b-AminoethylsulfonateGenerator
b-Aminoethylsulfonic acidGenerator
b-AminoethylsulphonateGenerator
b-Aminoethylsulphonic acidGenerator
beta-AminoethylsulfonateGenerator
beta-AminoethylsulphonateGenerator
beta-Aminoethylsulphonic acidGenerator
Β-aminoethylsulfonateGenerator
Β-aminoethylsulfonic acidGenerator
Β-aminoethylsulphonateGenerator
Β-aminoethylsulphonic acidGenerator
1-Aminoethane-2-sulfonateHMDB
1-Aminoethane-2-sulfonic acidHMDB
2-AminoethylsulfonateHMDB
2-Aminoethylsulfonic acidHMDB
2-SulfoethylamineHMDB
Taurine hydrochlorideHMDB
Taurine zinc salt (2:1)HMDB
Taurine, monopotassium saltHMDB
TaufonHMDB
TauphonHMDB
β-aminoethylsulfonic acidbiospider
2-aminoethyl sulfonatebiospider
Aminoethanesulfonic acidbiospider
Aminoethylsulfonic acid (jan)biospider
Aminoetylsulphonic acidbiospider
B-aminoethylsulfonatebiospider
B-aminoethylsulfonic acidbiospider
Beta-aminoethylsulfonatebiospider
Beta-aminoethylsulfonic acidbiospider
Ethanesulfonic acid, 2-amino-biospider
Ethanesulfonic acid, 2-amino- (9CI)biospider
Ethylaminesulfonic aciddb_source
Ethylaminesulphonic acidbiospider
FEMA 3813db_source
L-taurinebiospider
O-duebiospider
TAUbiospider
Taukardbiospider
Taurinebiospider
Taurine (8CI)biospider
Taurine (JP15/USP/INN)biospider
Taurine (TN)biospider
Taurine [inn]biospider
Taurine, 8CI, INNdb_source
β-aminoethylsulfonateGenerator
β-aminoethylsulfonic acidGenerator
β-aminoethylsulphonateGenerator
β-aminoethylsulphonic acidGenerator
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility105 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.2ALOGPS
logP-2.6ChemAxon
logS-0.08ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-1.5ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.34ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area80.39 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity24.61 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.82 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC2H7NO3S
IUPAC name2-aminoethane-1-sulfonic acid
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C2H7NO3S/c3-1-2-7(4,5)6/h1-3H2,(H,4,5,6)
InChI KeyXOAAWQZATWQOTB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Isomeric SMILESNCCS(O)(=O)=O
Average Molecular Weight125.147
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight125.014663785
Classification
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organosulfonic acids. Organosulfonic acids are compounds containing the sulfonic acid group, which has the general structure RS(=O)2OH (R is not a hydrogen atom).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassOrganic sulfonic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassOrganosulfonic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentOrganosulfonic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkanesulfonic acid
  • Sulfonyl
  • Organosulfonic acid
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Foods

Meats:

Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
PropertyValueReference
Physical stateSolid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionC 19.19%; H 5.64%; N 11.19%; O 38.35%; S 25.62%DFC
Melting PointMp 328° (320-325° dec.)DFC
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water Solubility80.7 mg/mL at 20 oCYALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKapKa2 8.74DFC
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0032-1901000000-5373a9d32fa1f29b8012View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0032-0901000000-f7cf5a7ef7741fe71454View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-9802000000-c315203efd199b1871e7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0032-1901000000-5373a9d32fa1f29b8012View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0032-0901000000-f7cf5a7ef7741fe71454View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9802000000-c315203efd199b1871e7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f9t-0902000000-41e2bea3bce85bb00386View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f9t-0902000000-41e2bea3bce85bb00386View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000x-9000000000-fc8f496bf8d00c37dd84View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-0900000000-57e6677f8d16d2985bfcView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9100000000-6c843965de2368577a54View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9200000000-bc9330a846bf43b4bd3fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0910000000-3db15ccd0e35f4d28cffView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0uk9-9800000000-2b8831b551e784a41008View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-773b190e6818e815f3c9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-a6f41eee062c4713d181View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0920000000-a558d03e31ae58106185View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-9cd32466db0b0c9c5c55View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-06101a50ac12515e4fd0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-10d63d9e046e843a5fcaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-006t-0890202100-ef2de9b47cafa707f789View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-9300000000-530438ccab9f22503af5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-ad642e440d924dfd8e20View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-006t-0097000000-24cfd722ea30b6a3b22dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-006t-0790202100-45d57f0101d4cefbc981View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-9300000000-bd1f04d82f9e675f2303View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-d411fff703670832e445View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-006t-0098000000-c86b66ff71cff513520fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-31f44189a2671cf5d2e9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-00e9-6900000000-cc7fe1badfe13959526dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-ae6465f92e91cfad7276View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-af0ea33a51fe79abee00View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-27d6c7ae55f73bb21b3cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-2900000000-a48be30a953f106419c0View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0036-9000000000-a96a1a8b53b1b556f6caView in MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
ChemSpider ID1091
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL239243
KEGG Compound IDC00245
Pubchem Compound ID1123
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15891
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDDB01956
HMDB IDHMDB00251
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDCSQ55-L:CSQ55-L
EAFUS ID3599
Dr. Duke IDTAURINE
BIGG ID34373
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
HET IDTAU
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDrw1097201
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDTaurine
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
FoodReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / Bioactivities
DescriptorIDDefinitionReference
anti corneiticDUKE
anti hemolytic50248 Drug that acts on blood and blood-forming organs and those that affect the hemostatic system.DUKE
antioxidant22586 A substance that opposes oxidation or inhibits reactions brought about by dioxygen or peroxides. In European countries, E-numbers for permitted antioxidant food additives are from E 300 to E 324.DUKE
cancer preventive35610 A substance that inhibits or prevents the proliferation of neoplasms.DUKE
cardiac38070 A drug used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. Anti-arrhythmia drugs may affect the polarisation-repolarisation phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibres.DUKE
hypocholesterolemicDUKE
Enzymes
NameGene NameUniProt ID
Bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferaseBAATQ14032
Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 1GGT1P19440
Gamma-glutamyltransferase 7GGT7Q9UJ14
Gamma-glutamyltransferase 6GGT6Q6P531
Gamma-glutamyltransferase 5GGT5P36269
Glutamate decarboxylase 2GAD2Q05329
Glutamate decarboxylase 1GAD1Q99259
Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylaseCSADQ9Y600
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Bile Acid BiosynthesisSMP00035 map00120
Taurine and Hypotaurine MetabolismSMP00021 map00430
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
Flavours
FlavorCitations
bland
  1. The Good Scents Company (2009). Flavor and fragrance information catalog. <http://www.thegoodscentscompany.com/allprod.html> Accessed 15.10.23.
bitter
  1. Ayana Wiener, Marina Shudler, Anat Levit, Masha Y. Niv. BitterDB: a database of bitter compounds. Nucleic Acids Res 2012, 40(Database issue):D413-419. DOI:10.1093/nar/gkr755
Files
MSDSshow
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference— Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).