Record Information
Version1.0
Creation date2010-04-08 22:05:50 UTC
Update date2018-05-28 18:31:24 UTC
Primary IDFDB003521
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • FDB030949
Chemical Information
FooDB NamePotassium
DescriptionPotassium is an essential electrolyte. Potassium balance is crucial for regulating the excitability of nerves and muscles and so critical for regulating contractility of cardiac muscle. Although the most important changes seen in the presence of deranged potassium are cardiac, smooth muscle is also affected with increasing muscle weakness, a feature of both hyperkalaemia and hypokalaemia. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Potassium (K+) is a positively charged electrolyte, cation, which is present throughout the body in both intracellular and extracellular fluids. The majority of body potassium, >90%, are intracellular. It moves freely from intracellular fluid (ICF) to extracellular fluid (ECF) and vice versa when adenosine triphosphate increases the permeability of the cell membrane. It is mainly replaced inside or outside the cells by another cation, sodium (Na+). The movement of potassium into or out of the cells is linked to certain body hormones and also to certain physiological states. Standard laboratory tests measure ECF potassium. Potassium enters the body rapidly during food ingestion. Insulin is produced when a meal is eaten; this causes the temporary movement of potassium from ECF to ICF. Over the ensuing hours, the kidneys excrete the ingested potassium and homeostasis is returned. In the critically ill patient, suffering from hyperkalaemia, this mechanism can be manipulated beneficially by administering high concentration (50%) intravenous glucose. Insulin can be added to the glucose, but glucose alone will stimulate insulin production and cause movement of potassium from ECF to ICF. The stimulation of alpha receptors causes increased movement of potassium from ICF to ECF. A noradrenaline infusion can elevate serum potassium levels. An adrenaline infusion, or elevated adrenaline levels, can lower serum potassium levels. Metabolic acidosis causes a rise in extracellular potassium levels. In this situation, excess of hydrogen ions (H+) are exchanged for intracellular potassium ions, probably as a result of the cellular response to a falling blood pH. Metabolic alkalosis causes the opposite effect, with potassium moving into the cells. (PMID: 17883675) [HMDB]. Potassium is found in many foods, some of which are half-highbush blueberry, liquor, grouper, and squashberry.
CAS Number7440-09-7
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymSource
K(+)ChEBI
K+ChEBI
POTASSIUM ionChEBI
Nabumeton aKegg
Potassium(1+)Kegg
KaliumHMDB
Potassium (ion)HMDB
Potassium (k+)HMDB
Potassium cationHMDB
Potassium ion (k+)HMDB
Potassium ion (K1+)HMDB
Potassium ion(+)HMDB
Potassium ion(1+)HMDB
Potassium monocationHMDB
Potassium(+)HMDB
Potassium(1+) ionHMDB
Potassium(I) cationHMDB
Liver regeneration factor 1HMDB
LRF-1HMDB
LRF1 Transcription factorHMDB
Potassium ionmanual
Potassium ion (k1+)HMDB
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Chemical FormulaK
IUPAC namepotassium(1+) ion
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/K/q+1
InChI KeyNPYPAHLBTDXSSS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Isomeric SMILES[K+]
Average Molecular Weight39.0983
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight38.963706861
Classification
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous alkali metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a alkali metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous alkali metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous alkali metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous alkali metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Biological role:

Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
PropertyValueReference
Physical stateSolid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionNot Available
Melting Point63.2 oC
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
Charge+1
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-560fc6f738e9570ec8a2JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-560fc6f738e9570ec8a2JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-560fc6f738e9570ec8a2JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-bcbe5ea7d5d32f6a9598JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-bcbe5ea7d5d32f6a9598JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-bcbe5ea7d5d32f6a9598JSpectraViewer
ChemSpider ID791
ChEMBL IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC00238
Pubchem Compound ID813
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI ID29103
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDDB01345
HMDB IDHMDB00586
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDNot Available
EAFUS IDNot Available
Dr. Duke IDPOTASSIUM
BIGG ID34349
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
HET IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDPotassium
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
FoodReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / Bioactivities
DescriptorIDDefinitionReference
angiotensin receptor blocker61016 A hormone antagonist that blocks angiotensin receptors.DUKE
anti arrhythmic38070 A drug used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. Anti-arrhythmia drugs may affect the polarisation-repolarisation phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibres.DUKE
anti depressant52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti fatigue52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti hypertensive52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti spasmodic52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti stroke52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anxiolytic35474 Anxiolytic drugs are agents that alleviate anxiety, tension, and anxiety disorders, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions.DUKE
beta-blockerDUKE
cardioprotective38070 A drug used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. Anti-arrhythmia drugs may affect the polarisation-repolarisation phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibres.DUKE
cardiotoxic50912 A role played by a chemical compound exihibiting itself through the ability to induce damage to the heart and cardiomyocytes.DUKE
diuretic35498 An agent that promotes the excretion of urine through its effects on kidney function.DUKE
hypotensiveDUKE
vasodilator35620 A drug used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.DUKE
Enzymes
NameGene NameUniProt ID
Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-3ATP1B3P54709
Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-2ATP1B2P14415
Potassium-transporting ATPase alpha chain 2ATP12AP54707
Potassium-transporting ATPase subunit betaATP4BP51164
Potassium-transporting ATPase alpha chain 1ATP4AP20648
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Lactose DegradationSMP00457 Not Available
Trehalose DegradationSMP00467 Not Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
FlavoursNot Available
Files
MSDSshow
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference— Saxholt, E., et al. 'Danish food composition databank, revision 7.' Department of Nutrition, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark (2008).
— U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2008. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page.
— Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).