Record Information
Version1.0
Creation date2010-04-08 22:05:55 UTC
Update date2018-05-28 23:12:58 UTC
Primary IDFDB003729
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB NameZinc
DescriptionAlthough zinc is an essential requirement for good health, excess zinc can be harmful. Excessive absorption of zinc suppresses copper and iron absorption. The free zinc ion in solution is highly toxic to plants, invertebrates, and even vertebrate fish. The Free Ion Activity Model is well-established in the literature, and shows that just micromolar amounts of the free ion kills some organisms. A recent example showed 6 micromolar killing 93% of all Daphnia in water.; Binary compounds of zinc are known for most of the metalloids and all the nonmetals except the noble gases. The oxide ZnO is a white powder that is nearly insoluble in neutral aqueous solutions, but is amphoteric, dissolving in both strong basic and acidic solutions. The other chalcogenides (ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe) have varied applications in electronics and optics. Pnictogenides (Zn3N2, Zn3P2, Zn3As2 and Zn3Sb2), the peroxide (ZnO2), the hydride (ZnH2), and the carbide (ZnC2) are also known. Of the four halides, ZnF2 has the most ionic character, whereas the others (ZnCl2, ZnBr2, and ZnI2) have relatively low melting points and are considered to have more covalent character.; Brass, which is an alloy of copper and zinc, has been used since at least the 10th century BC. Impure zinc metal was not produced in large scale until the 13th century in India, while the metal was unknown to Europe until the end of the 16th century. Alchemists burned zinc in air to form what they called "philosopher's wool" or "white snow". The element was probably named by the alchemist Paracelsus after the German word Zinke. German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf is normally given credit for discovering pure metallic zinc in 1746. Work by Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta uncovered the electrochemical properties of zinc by 1800. Corrosion-resistant zinc plating of steel (hot-dip galvanizing) is the major application for zinc. Other applications are in batteries and alloys, such as brass. A variety of zinc compounds are commonly used, such as zinc carbonate and zinc gluconate (as dietary supplements), zinc chloride (in deodorants), zinc pyrithione (anti-dandruff shampoos), zinc sulfide (in luminescent paints), and zinc methyl or zinc diethyl in the organic laboratory.; Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) is a semiconductive alloy that can be divided into an array of small sensing devices. These devices are similar to an integrated circuit and can detect the energy of incoming gamma ray photons. When placed behind an absorbing mask, the CZT sensor array can also be used to determine the direction of the rays. Zinc is used as the anode or fuel of the zinc-air battery/fuel cell providing the basis of the theorized zinc economy.; Groups at risk for zinc deficiency include the elderly, vegetarians, and those with renal insufficiency. The zinc chelator phytate, found in seeds and cereal bran, can contribute to zinc malabsorption in those with heavily vegetarian diets. There is a paucity of adequate zinc biomarkers, and the most widely used indicator, plasma zinc, has poor sensitivity and specificity. Diagnosing zinc deficiency is a persistent challenge.; In weak basic solutions containing Zn2+ ions, the hydroxide Zn(OH)2 forms as a white precipitate. In stronger alkaline solutions, this hydroxide is dissolved to form zincates ([Zn(OH)4]2?). The nitrate Zn(NO3)2, chlorate Zn(ClO3)2, sulfate ZnSO4, phosphate Zn3(PO4)2, molybdate ZnMoO4, cyanide Zn(CN)2, arsenite Zn(AsO2)2, arsenate Zn(AsO4)2?8H2O and the chromate ZnCrO4 (one of the few colored zinc compounds) are a few examples of other common inorganic compounds of zinc. One of the simplest examples of an organic compound of zinc is the acetate (Zn(O2CCH3)2).; Organozinc compounds are those that contain zinc?carbon covalent bonds. Diethylzinc ((C2H5)2Zn) is a reagent in synthetic chemistry. It was first reported in 1848 from the reaction of zinc and ethyl iodide, and was the first compound known to contain a metal?carbon sigma bond. Decamethyldizincocene contains a strong zinc?zinc bond at room temperature.; Other sources include fortified food and dietary supplements, which come in various forms. A 1998 review concluded that zinc oxide, one of the most common supplements in the United States, and zinc carbonate are nearly insoluble and poorly absorbed in the body. This review cited studies which found low plasma zinc concentrations after zinc oxide and zinc carbonate were consumed compared with those seen after consumption of zinc acetate and sulfate salts. However, harmful excessive supplementation is a problem among the relatively affluent, and should probably not exceed 20 mg/day in healthy people, although the U.S. National Research Council set a Tolerable Upper Intake of 40 mg/day.; Roughly one quarter of all zinc output, in the United States (2006), is consumed in the form of zinc compounds; a variety of which are used industrially. Zinc oxide is widely used as a white pigment in paints, and as a catalyst in the manufacture of rubber. It is also used as a heat disperser for the rubber and acts to protect its polymers from ultraviolet radiation (the same UV protection is conferred to plastics containing zinc oxide). The semiconductor properties of zinc oxide make it useful in varistors and photocopying products. The zinc zinc-oxide cycle is a two step thermochemical process based on zinc and zinc oxide for hydrogen production.; The Age-Related Eye Disease Study determined that zinc can be part of an effective treatment for age-related macular degeneration. Zinc supplementation is an effective treatment for acrodermatitis enteropathica, a genetic disorder affecting zinc absorption that was previously fatal to babies born with it.; The element is normally found in association with other base metals such as copper and lead in ores. Zinc is a chalcophile ("sulfur loving"), meaning the element has a low affinity for oxygen and prefers to bond with sulfur in highly insoluble sulfides. Chalcophiles formed as the crust solidified under the reducing conditions of the early Earth's atmosphere. Sphalerite, which is a form of zinc sulfide, is the most heavily mined zinc-containing ore because its concentrate contains 60?62% zinc.; The free zinc ion is a powerful Lewis acid up to the point of being corrosive. Stomach acid contains hydrochloric acid, in which metallic zinc dissolves readily to give corrosive zinc chloride. Swallowing a post-1982 American one cent piece (97.5% zinc) can cause damage to the stomach lining due to the high solubility of the zinc ion in the acidic stomach.; The metal is hard and brittle at most temperatures but becomes malleable between 100 and 150 °C. Above 210 °C, the metal becomes brittle again and can be pulverized by beating. Zinc is a fair conductor of electricity. For a metal, zinc has relatively low melting (420 °C) and boiling points (900 °C). Its melting point is the lowest of all the transition metals aside from mercury and cadmium.; The most common decay mode of an isotope of zinc with a mass number lower than 64 is electron capture. The decay product resulting from electron capture is an isotope of copper.; There are 2?4 grams of zinc distributed throughout the human body. Most zinc is in the brain, muscle, bones, kidney, and liver, with the highest concentrations in the prostate and parts of the eye. Semen is particularly rich in zinc, which is a key factor in prostate gland function and reproductive organ growth.; Various isolated examples of the use of impure zinc in ancient times have been discovered. A possibly prehistoric statuette containing 87.5% zinc was found in a Dacian archaeological site in Transylvania (modern Romania). Ornaments made of alloys that contain 80?90% zinc with lead, iron, antimony, and other metals making up the remainder, have been found that are 2500 years old. The Berne zinc tablet is a votive plaque dating to Roman Gaul made of an alloy that is mostly zincand is also, some ancient writings appear to mention zinc. The Greek historian Strabo, in a passage taken from an earlier writer of the 4th century BC, mentions "drops of false silver", which when mixed with copper make brass. This may refer to small quantities of zinc produced as a by-product of smelting sulfide ores. The Charaka Samhita, thought to have been written in 500 BC or before, mentions a metal which, when oxidized, produces pushpanjan, thought to be zinc oxide.; Zinc (pronounced /?z??k/ zingk, from German: Zink), also known as spelter, is a metallic chemical element; it has the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table. Zinc is, in some respects, chemically similar to magnesium, because its ion is of similar size and its only common oxidation state is +2. Zinc is the 24th most abundant element in the Earth's crust and has five stable isotopes. The most exploited zinc ore is sphalerite, a zinc sulfide. The largest exploitable deposits are found in Australia, Canada, and the United States. Zinc production includes froth flotation of the ore, roasting, and final extraction using electricity (electrowinning).; Zinc chemistry is similar to the chemistry of the late first-row transition metals, nickel and copper though it has a filled d-shell, so its compounds are diamagnetic and mostly colorless. The ionic radii of zinc and magnesium happen to be nearly identical. Because of this some of their salts have the same crystal structure and in circumstances where ionic radius is a determining factor zinc and magnesium chemistries have much in common. Otherwise there is little similarity. Zinc tends to form bonds with a greater degree of covalency and it forms much more stable complexes with N- and S- donors. Complexes of zinc are mostly 4- or 6- coordinate although 5-coordinate complexes are known.; Zinc chloride is often added to lumber as a fire retardant and can be used as a wood preservative. It is also used to make other chemicals. Zinc methyl (Zn(CH3)2) is used in a number of organic syntheses. Zinc sulfide (ZnS) is used in luminescent pigments such as on the hands of clocks, X-ray and television screens, and luminous paints. Crystals of ZnS are used in lasers that operate in the mid-infrared part of the spectrum. Zinc sulphate is a chemical in dyes and pigments. Zinc pyrithione is used in antifouling paints.; Zinc has an electron configuration of [Ar]3d104s2 and is a member of the group 12 of the periodic table. It is a moderately reactive metal and strong reducing agent. The surface of the pure metal tarnishes quickly, eventually forming a protective passivating layer of the basic zinc carbonate, Zn5(OH)6CO3, by reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide. This layer helps prevent further reaction with air and water.; Zinc is a good Lewis acid, making it a useful catalytic agent in hydroxylation and other enzymatic reactions. The metal also has a flexible coordination geometry, which allows proteins using it to rapidly shift conformations to perform biological reactions. Two examples of zinc-containing enzymes are carbonic anhydrase and carboxypeptidase, which are vital to the processes of carbon dioxide (CO2) regulation and digestion of proteins, respectively.; Zinc is an essential element, necessary for sustaining all life.Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. It is estimated that 3000 of the hundreds of thousands of proteins in the human body contain zinc prosthetic groups. In addition, there are over a dozen types of cells in the human body that secrete zinc ions, and the roles of these secreted zinc signals in medicine and health are now being actively studied. Intriguingly, brain cells in the mammalian forebrain are one type of cell that secretes zinc, along with its other neuronal messenger substances. Cells in the salivary gland, prostate, immune system and intestine are other types that secrete zinc. Obtaining a sufficient zinc intake during pregnancy and in young children is a problem, especially among those who cannot afford a good and varied diet. Brain development is stunted by zinc deficiency in utero and in youth. Zinc is an activator of certain enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase. Carbonic anhydrase is important in the transport of carbon dioxide in vertebrate blood. Even though zinc is an essential requirement for a healthy body, too much zinc can be harmful. Excessive absorption of zinc can also suppress copper and iron absorption. The free zinc ion in solution is highly toxic to plants, invertebrates, and even vertebrate fish. The Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM) is well-established in the literature, and shows that just micromolar amounts of the free ion kills some organisms.; Zinc is an essential mineral of "exceptional biologic and public health importance". Zinc deficiency affects about two billion people in the developing world and is associated with many diseases. In children it causes growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, infection susceptibility, and diarrhea, contributing to the death of about 800,000 children worldwide per year. Enzymes with a zinc atom in the reactive center are widespread in biochemistry, such as alcohol dehydrogenase in humans. Consumption of excess zinc can cause ataxia, lethargy and copper deficiency.; Zinc is an essential trace element, necessary for plants, animals, and microorganisms. Zinc is found in nearly 100 specific enzymes (other sources say 300), serves as structural ions in transcription factors and is stored and transferred in metallothioneins. It is "typically the second most abundant transition metal in organisms" after iron and it is the only metal which appears in all enzyme classes.; Zinc powder is sometimes used as a propellant in model rockets. When a compressed mixture of 70% zinc and 30% sulfur powder is ignited there is a violent chemical reaction. This produces zinc sulfide, together with large amounts of hot gas, heat, and light. Zinc sheet metal is used to make zinc bars.; Zinc, also referred to in nonscientific contexts as spelter, is a bluish-white, lustrous, diamagnetic metal, though most common commercial grades of the metal have a dull finish. It is somewhat less dense than iron and has a hexagonal crystal structure.
CAS Number7440-66-6
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymSource
30ZnChEBI
CincChEBI
ZincumChEBI
ZinkChEBI
ZnChEBI
ZN(II)ChEBI
ZN2+ChEBI
Asarco L 15biospider
Bio statol (pour hommes)biospider
Blue powderbiospider
C.I. Pigment black 16biospider
C.I. Pigment metal 6biospider
Chelazome Zinc Cap 30mgbiospider
CINCbiospider
Delavillebiospider
Dietary zincChEBI
Emanay zinc dustbiospider
Flavo-zinc lozengesbiospider
Galzinbiospider
Granular zincbiospider
Jasadbiospider
Lead refinery vacuum zincbiospider
Lozenges - zinc acetatebiospider
Men Formula - Cap 5mgbiospider
Merrillitebiospider
Micro ZNbiospider
Pascobiospider
Phyto-Zinc Cap 50mgbiospider
Rheinzinkbiospider
Zinc (Citrate) Capsule 50mgbiospider
Zinc (dust or fume)biospider
Zinc (fume or dust)biospider
Zinc (metallic)biospider
Zinc 50mgbiospider
Zinc and compoundsbiospider
Zinc anionbiospider
Zinc ashes [UN1435] [Dangerous when wet]biospider
Zinc Cap 50mgbiospider
Zinc Caps 30mgbiospider
Zinc cationChEBI
Zinc citratebiospider
Zinc Citrate 50mgbiospider
Zinc dustbiospider
Zinc formulabiospider
Zinc ionbiospider
zinc ion (1+)biospider
Zinc Liquid- 15mg/5mlbiospider
Zinc Lozenge 23mgbiospider
Zinc Oligosol Liq 0.47mg/2mlbiospider
Zinc oral spraybiospider
Zinc ore concentrate (trace elements)biospider
Zinc powder - zinc dust (pyrophoric)biospider
Zinc Powder Or Zinc Dust [un1436] [dangerous When Wet]biospider
Zinc preparationbiospider
Zinc Srt 50mgbiospider
Zinc standard for aasbiospider
Zinc tallybiospider
Zinc Vallerate Liquid (S#388)biospider
Zinc, ashesbiospider
Zinc, elementalbiospider
Zinc, ion (Zn 1-)biospider
zinc, ion (Zn1+)biospider
Zinc, ion (zn2+)ChEBI
Zinc, powder or dust, non-pyrophoricbiospider
Zinc, powder or dust, pyrophoricbiospider
zinc(0)biospider
zinc(1-)biospider
zinc(1+)biospider
zinc(1+) ionbiospider
Zinc(I) cationbiospider
Zincidebiospider
Zincide(-I)biospider
zincide(1-)biospider
Zincitrate Cap 30mgbiospider
ZINKbiospider
ZNbiospider
ZN(-)biospider
ZN(+)biospider
Zn(2+)ChEBI
Zn2+ChEBI
ZNNbiospider
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.16ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Chemical FormulaZn
IUPAC namezinc
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Zn
InChI KeyHCHKCACWOHOZIP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Isomeric SMILES[Zn]
Average Molecular Weight65.409
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight63.929146578
Classification
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous transition metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous transition metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous transition metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Environmental role:

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
PropertyValueReference
Physical stateSolid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionNot Available
Melting Point419.5 oC
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-0cd08967c771fb645329View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-0cd08967c771fb645329View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-0cd08967c771fb645329View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-29976d3ebd17b2d11a4bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-29976d3ebd17b2d11a4bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-29976d3ebd17b2d11a4bView in MoNA
ChemSpider ID29723
ChEMBL IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC00038
Pubchem Compound ID32051
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI ID30185
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDDB01593
HMDB IDHMDB01303
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDNot Available
EAFUS IDNot Available
Dr. Duke IDZINC
BIGG IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
HET IDZN
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDZinc
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
FoodReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / Bioactivities
DescriptorIDDefinitionReference
angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor35457 An EC 3.4.15.* (peptidyl-dipeptidase) inhibitor that interferes with the action of peptidyl-dipeptidase A (EC 3.4.15.1).DUKE
analgesic35480 An agent capable of relieving pain without the loss of consciousness or without producing anaesthesia. In addition, analgesic is a role played by a compound which is exhibited by a capability to cause a reduction of pain symptoms.DUKE
anti acne50177 A drug used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.DUKE
anti acrodermatitic50177 A drug used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.DUKE
anti alcoholic52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti alopecic52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti Alzheimeran52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti angiogenic48422 An agent and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.DUKE
anti anorexic50780 An agent which regulates the physiologic mechanisms that control the appetite and food intake.DUKE
anti arthritic52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti benign prostatic hyperplasiaDUKE
anti cancer35610 A substance that inhibits or prevents the proliferation of neoplasms.DUKE
anti cataract52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti coeliac52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti cold52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti colitic52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti coronary52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti Crohn's52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti dandruffDUKE
anti dementia52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti diabetic52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
antidote50247 Any protective agent counteracting or neutralizing the action of poisons.DUKE
anti dysgeuzicDUKE
anti eczemic52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti encephalopathic52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti epileptic52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti fibroticDUKE
anti furuncularDUKE
anti hangover52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti herpetic22587 A substance that destroys or inhibits replication of viruses.DUKE
anti HIV22587 A substance that destroys or inhibits replication of viruses.DUKE
anti impotence52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti infective52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti infertility52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti insomniac52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti lepric33282 A substance that kills or slows the growth of bacteria.DUKE
anti leukonychicDUKE
anti lymphomicDUKE
anti maculiticDUKE
anti metastatic35610 A substance that inhibits or prevents the proliferation of neoplasms.DUKE
anti neuropathicDUKE
anti nyctalopicDUKE
anti obesity52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti osteoporotic52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti periodontiticDUKE
anti plaqueDUKE
anti prolactinDUKE
anti prostatiticDUKE
anti rheumatic52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti septic33281 A substance that kills or slows the growth of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoans.DUKE
anti spare-tireDUKE
anti stomatiticDUKE
anti syndrome-X52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti tinniticDUKE
anti triglyceride35222 A substance that diminishes the rate of a chemical reaction.DUKE
anti ulcer49201 One of various classes of drugs with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate peptic ulcer or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract.DUKE
anti viral22587 A substance that destroys or inhibits replication of viruses.DUKE
astringent74783 A compound that causes the contraction of body tissues, typically used to reduce bleeding from minor abrasions.DUKE
collagenicDUKE
copper antagonist48706 Substance that attaches to and blocks cell receptors that normally bind naturally occurring substances.DUKE
deodorantDUKE
detoxicant50247 Any protective agent counteracting or neutralizing the action of poisons.DUKE
ergogenicDUKE
hypotensiveDUKE
immunomodulator50846 Biologically active substance whose activity affects or plays a role in the functioning of the immune system.DUKE
immunostimulant50847 A substance that augments, stimulates, activates, potentiates, or modulates the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. A classical agent (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contains bacterial antigens. It could also be endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Its mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy is related to its antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.DUKE
immunosuppressant35705 An agent that suppresses immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-cells or by inhibiting the activation of helper cells. In addition, an immunosuppressive agent is a role played by a compound which is exhibited by a capability to diminish the extent and/or voracity of an immune response.DUKE
insulinogenicDUKE
leptingenicDUKE
mucogenicDUKE
NF-kappa-B inhibitor35222 A substance that diminishes the rate of a chemical reaction.DUKE
pesticide25944 Strictly, a substance intended to kill pests. In common usage, any substance used for controlling, preventing, or destroying animal, microbiological or plant pests.DUKE
spermigenicDUKE
testosteronigenicDUKE
trichomonicideDUKE
vulnerary73336 A drug used in treating and healing of wounds.DUKE
Enzymes
NameGene NameUniProt ID
Phospholipase D2PLD2O14939
Alcohol dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]AKR1A1P14550
Carboxypeptidase DCPDO75976
Glutamyl aminopeptidaseENPEPQ07075
Bone morphogenetic protein 1BMP1P13497
Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase AALDOAP04075
Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase CALDOCP09972
Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase BALDOBP05062
Beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1ADRBK1P25098
Beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2ADRBK2P35626
Rhodopsin kinaseGRK1Q15835
Neurolysin, mitochondrialNLNQ9BYT8
G protein-coupled receptor kinase 7GRK7Q8WTQ7
Aminopeptidase BRNPEPQ9H4A4
Mast cell carboxypeptidase ACPA3P15088
Carboxypeptidase A6CPA6Q8N4T0
Carboxypeptidase A5CPA5A4D1M2
Carboxypeptidase BCPB1P15086
Carboxypeptidase B2CPB2Q96IY4
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 2ADAMTS2O95450
Insulin-degrading enzymeIDEP14735
Carbonic anhydrase 6CA6P23280
Carboxypeptidase N, polypeptide 1CPN1B1AP59
Carboxypeptidase N subunit 2CPN2P22792
Carbonic anhydrase-related proteinCA8P35219
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
FlavoursNot Available
Files
MSDSshow
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference— Saxholt, E., et al. 'Danish food composition databank, revision 7.' Department of Nutrition, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark (2008).
— U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2008. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page.
— Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).