Record Information
Version1.0
Creation date2010-04-08 22:06:27 UTC
Update date2019-11-27 17:11:12 UTC
Primary IDFDB004940
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB NameL-(-)-Phenylalanine
DescriptionL-phenylalanine, also known as phe or f, belongs to phenylalanine and derivatives class of compounds. Those are compounds containing phenylalanine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of phenylalanine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom. L-phenylalanine is slightly soluble (in water) and a moderately acidic compound (based on its pKa). L-phenylalanine can be found in watermelon, which makes L-phenylalanine a potential biomarker for the consumption of this food product. L-phenylalanine can be found primarily in most biofluids, including sweat, blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as well as throughout all human tissues. L-phenylalanine exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. In humans, L-phenylalanine is involved in a couple of metabolic pathways, which include phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism and transcription/Translation. L-phenylalanine is also involved in few metabolic disorders, which include phenylketonuria, tyrosinemia type 2 (or richner-hanhart syndrome), and tyrosinemia type 3 (TYRO3). Moreover, L-phenylalanine is found to be associated with viral infection, dengue fever, hypothyroidism, and myocardial infarction. L-phenylalanine is a non-carcinogenic (not listed by IARC) potentially toxic compound. Phenylalanine (Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula C 9H 11NO 2. It can be viewed as a benzyl group substituted for the methyl group of alanine, or a phenyl group in place of a terminal hydrogen of alanine. This essential amino acid is classified as neutral, and nonpolar because of the inert and hydrophobic nature of the benzyl side chain. The L-isomer is used to biochemically form proteins, coded for by DNA. The codons for L-phenylalanine are UUU and UUC. Phenylalanine is a precursor for tyrosine; the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline); and the skin pigment melanin . Hepatic. L-phenylalanine that is not metabolized in the liver is distributed via the systemic circulation to the various tissues of the body, where it undergoes metabolic reactions similar to those that take place in the liver (DrugBank). If PKU is diagnosed early, an affected newborn can grow up with normal brain development, but only by managing and controlling phenylalanine levels through diet, or a combination of diet and medication. The diet requires severely restricting or eliminating foods high in phenylalanine, such as meat, chicken, fish, eggs, nuts, cheese, legumes, milk and other dairy products. Starchy foods, such as potatoes, bread, pasta, and corn, must be monitored. Optimal health ranges (or "target ranges") of serum phenylalanine are between 120 and 360 µmol/L, and aimed to be achieved during at least the first 10 years of life. Recently it has been found that a chiral isomer of L-phenylalanine (called D-phenylalanine) actually arrests the fibril formation by L-phenylalanine and gives rise to flakes. These flakes do not propagate further and prevent amyloid formation by L-phenylalanine. D-phenylalanine may qualify as a therapeutic molecule in phenylketonuria (A8161) (T3DB).
CAS Number63-91-2
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymSource
(S)-2-Amino-3-phenylpropionic acidChEBI
(S)-alpha-Amino-beta-phenylpropionic acidChEBI
3-Phenyl-L-alanineChEBI
beta-Phenyl-L-alanineChEBI
FChEBI
PheChEBI
PHENYLALANINEChEBI
(S)-2-Amino-3-phenylpropionateGenerator
(S)-a-Amino-b-phenylpropionateGenerator
(S)-a-Amino-b-phenylpropionic acidGenerator
(S)-alpha-Amino-beta-phenylpropionateGenerator
(S)-Α-amino-β-phenylpropionateGenerator
(S)-Α-amino-β-phenylpropionic acidGenerator
b-Phenyl-L-alanineGenerator
Β-phenyl-L-alanineGenerator
(-)-beta-PhenylalanineHMDB
(L)-PhenylalanineHMDB
(S)-(-)-PhenylalanineHMDB
(S)-2-Amino-3-phenylpropanoateHMDB
(S)-2-Amino-3-phenylpropanoic acidHMDB
(S)-alpha-Amino-benzenepropanoateHMDB
(S)-alpha-Amino-benzenepropanoic acidHMDB
(S)-alpha-AminobenzenepropanoateHMDB
(S)-alpha-Aminobenzenepropanoic acidHMDB
(S)-alpha-AminohydrocinnamateHMDB
(S)-alpha-Aminohydrocinnamic acidHMDB
(S)-PhenylalanineHMDB
alpha-AminohydrocinnamateHMDB
alpha-Aminohydrocinnamic acidHMDB
beta-Phenyl-alpha-alanineHMDB
beta-PhenylalanineHMDB
L-2-Amino-3-phenylpropionateHMDB
L-2-Amino-3-phenylpropionic acidHMDB
Phenyl-alanineHMDB
PhenylalamineHMDB
L-Isomer phenylalanineHMDB
Phenylalanine, L isomerHMDB
Phenylalanine, L-isomerHMDB
EndorphenylHMDB
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.14 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.4ALOGPS
logP-1.2ChemAxon
logS-1.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.47ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.45ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity45.12 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability17.03 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC9H11NO2
IUPAC name(2S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C9H11NO2/c10-8(9(11)12)6-7-4-2-1-3-5-7/h1-5,8H,6,10H2,(H,11,12)/t8-/m0/s1
InChI KeyCOLNVLDHVKWLRT-QMMMGPOBSA-N
Isomeric SMILESN[C@@H](CC1=CC=CC=C1)C(O)=O
Average Molecular Weight165.1891
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight165.078978601
Classification
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylalanine and derivatives. Phenylalanine and derivatives are compounds containing phenylalanine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of phenylalanine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentPhenylalanine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylalanine or derivatives
  • 3-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Aralkylamine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxide
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Indirect biological role:

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Foods
  • Dairy products
  • Eggs
  • Meats
  • Grains:

    Nuts and legumes:

    Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
    Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
    PropertyValueReference
    Physical stateNot Available
    Physical DescriptionNot Available
    Mass CompositionNot Available
    Melting PointNot Available
    Boiling PointNot Available
    Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
    Experimental logPNot Available
    Experimental pKaNot Available
    Isoelectric pointNot Available
    ChargeNot Available
    Optical RotationNot Available
    Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
    DensityNot Available
    Refractive IndexNot Available
    Spectra
    Spectra
    Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0fr6-1930000000-a37fbccaf826443ef70cView in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-1940000000-537e2725d621246630c1View in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-00di-9630000000-ead0919f9a19d2352d80View in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-00di-2900000000-cb2d6dc4bf9515150328View in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-014l-2960000000-f77489792f0652dd5613View in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-0970000000-792b341dd28b9e30bac2View in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr6-1930000000-a37fbccaf826443ef70cView in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-1940000000-537e2725d621246630c1View in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQ (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ul9-3659000000-b85be4e71798e2fdc47bView in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9630000000-ead0919f9a19d2352d80View in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-2900000000-cb2d6dc4bf9515150328View in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-2960000000-f77489792f0652dd5613View in MoNA
    Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-006x-9600000000-df38fcb743d8f44fb876View in MoNA
    Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-7900000000-f21569d2ec75b88e1bdaView in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-0900000000-0f3b994108b8a9fd2a56View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0gb9-2900000000-c14d44c8a67621757f3dView in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-9300000000-08c642dab7f49c00da43View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-7dce1e473976f7d2143eView in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0f6x-9600000000-711557391093b0d8500aView in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-0c25a5c116eac7bb059bView in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-2804f79084ac4e67e155View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-8a71bb1f8424064d7cafView in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0f6x-9800000000-e027ff6bb67ce55e80a5View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-9f6185e9c7d54189f369View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-df5f72fe2bba91742427View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0ir3-0988735721-bac229222fe7b52812a8View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-453477dec847a3672ffeView in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0010963000-079a66bf710f6778bcebView in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0000009000-62dbe98de4ecde484fb3View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-80558c17dc1845663c85View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-3900000000-e1ee31d41e48824e84b7View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0f6x-9500000000-cc11290a37615f24e16eView in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-1a6020bce0e1a9a14832View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-38c044a112152626962eView in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-9b908abfcb63153d60b3View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-1900000000-3ba5964e151bb1d56188View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-00di-2900000000-20a7d24da0281f5b3b78View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0udi-5900000000-1800642a835b49f3398aView in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-0fb9-9300000000-f262384c85fb843f8a11View in MoNA
    MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00dl-9300000000-4782928378caea601f9bView in MoNA
    1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
    1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
    2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
    2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
    ChemSpider IDNot Available
    ChEMBL IDNot Available
    KEGG Compound IDNot Available
    Pubchem Compound IDNot Available
    Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
    ChEBI IDNot Available
    Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
    DrugBank IDNot Available
    HMDB IDNot Available
    CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDNot Available
    EAFUS IDNot Available
    Dr. Duke IDL-(-)-PHENYLALANINE
    BIGG IDNot Available
    KNApSAcK IDNot Available
    HET IDNot Available
    Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
    VMH IDNot Available
    Flavornet IDNot Available
    GoodScent IDNot Available
    SuperScent IDNot Available
    Wikipedia IDNot Available
    Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
    Duplicate IDSNot Available
    Old DFC IDSNot Available
    Associated Foods
    FoodContent Range AverageReference
    FoodReference
    Biological Effects and Interactions
    Health Effects / BioactivitiesNot Available
    EnzymesNot Available
    PathwaysNot Available
    MetabolismNot Available
    BiosynthesisNot Available
    Organoleptic Properties
    FlavoursNot Available
    Files
    MSDSNot Available
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
    General ReferenceNot Available
    Content Reference— Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).