Record Information
Version1.0
Creation date2010-04-08 22:09:10 UTC
Update date2019-11-27 17:16:12 UTC
Primary IDFDB010508
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB Name4-Hydroxybenzoic acid
DescriptionIsolated from many plants, free and combined. Alkyl esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (see below) are used as food and cosmetic preservatives, mainly in their Na salt form, which makes them more water soluble. They are active at low concentrations and more pH-independent than the commonly used Benzoic acid DVN38-Z and 2,4-Hexadienoic acid GMZ10-P. The taste is more detectable than for those preservatives. Effectiveness increases with chain length of the alcohol, but for some microorganisms this reduces cell permeability and thus counteracts the increased efficiency. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid is found in many foods, some of which are chicory, corn, rye, and black huckleberry.
CAS Number99-96-7
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymSource
4-CarboxyphenolChEBI
p-HYDROXYBENZOIC ACIDChEBI
p-Salicylic acidChEBI
Hydroxybenzoic acidKegg
Hydroxybenzenecarboxylic acidKegg
p-HYDROXYBENZOateGenerator
p-SalicylateGenerator
HydroxybenzoateGenerator
HydroxybenzenecarboxylateGenerator
4-HydroxybenzoateGenerator
4-Hydroxy-benzoateHMDB
4-Hydroxy-benzoesaeureHMDB
4-Hydroxy-benzoic acidHMDB
p-CarboxyphenolHMDB
p-Hydroxy-benzoateHMDB
p-Hydroxy-benzoic acidHMDB
Paraben-acidHMDB
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, calcium saltHMDB
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, dilithium saltHMDB
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, disodium saltHMDB
Para-hydroxybenzoic acidHMDB
Sodium p-hydroxybenzoate tetrahydrateHMDB
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, copper(2+)(1:1) saltHMDB
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, dipotassium saltHMDB
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, monopotassium saltHMDB
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, monosodium saltHMDB
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, monosodium salt, 11C-labeledHMDB
4-hydroxy-benzoatebiospider
4-hydroxy-benzoic acidbiospider
Benzoic acid, 4-hydroxybiospider
Benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-biospider
Benzoic acid, p-hydroxybiospider
Benzoic acid, p-hydroxy-biospider
Catalpinic acid (obsol.)db_source
Hydroxybenzoic acid, parabiospider
P-carboxyphenolbiospider
P-hydroxy-benzoatebiospider
P-hydroxy-benzoic acidbiospider
P-hydroxybenzoatebiospider
P-hydroxybenzoic acidbiospider
P-salicyclic acidbiospider
P-salicylatebiospider
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility11.9 g/LALOGPS
logP1.58ALOGPS
logP1.33ChemAxon
logS-1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.38ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.3 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability12.94 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC7H6O3
IUPAC name4-hydroxybenzoic acid
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C7H6O3/c8-6-3-1-5(2-4-6)7(9)10/h1-4,8H,(H,9,10)
InChI KeyFJKROLUGYXJWQN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Isomeric SMILESOC(=O)C1=CC=C(O)C=C1
Average Molecular Weight138.122
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight138.031694053
Classification
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. Hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives are compounds containing a hydroxybenzoic acid (or a derivative), which is a benzene ring bearing a carboxyl and a hydroxyl groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentHydroxybenzoic acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hydroxybenzoic acid
  • Benzoic acid
  • Benzoyl
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Phenol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Foods
  • Cocoa and cocoa products
  • Grains:

    Nuts and legumes:

    Fruits and vegetables:

    Fats and oils:

    Beverages:

    Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
    Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
    PropertyValueReference
    Physical stateSolid
    Physical DescriptionNot Available
    Mass CompositionC 60.87%; H 4.38%; O 34.75%DFC
    Melting PointMp 213-214°DFC
    Boiling PointNot Available
    Experimental Water Solubility5 mg/mL at 25 oCYALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
    Experimental logP1.58HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
    Experimental pKapKa2 9.37 (25°,50% EtOH aq.)DFC
    Isoelectric pointNot Available
    ChargeNot Available
    Optical RotationNot Available
    Spectroscopic UV Data255 () (HCl) (Berdy)DFC
    DensityNot Available
    Refractive IndexNot Available
    Spectra
    Spectra
    Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-01b9-0490000000-89473836b0071542185eView in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-00xu-2890000000-dd5367ba838ccd5b29d8View in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-00di-9540000000-11db590137f79b7a32bfView in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-00xu-3890000000-7e553522b6ec5c075e25View in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dr-5900000000-9b1d88421f1e1ded16f9View in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9700000000-a9bb4b71d8b23a56ca67View in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0079-6900000000-617d58eb059c1e918ca0View in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dr-4900000000-97bfa38b0d6bc152d470View in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dr-7900000000-290af590b1fc44a86969View in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-01b9-0490000000-d6001fb50397705d3e0bView in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-01b9-0490000000-89473836b0071542185eView in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00xu-2890000000-dd5367ba838ccd5b29d8View in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9540000000-11db590137f79b7a32bfView in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00xu-3890000000-7e553522b6ec5c075e25View in MoNA
    GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00xu-2980000000-0ba0ea7d63bd7fff3b22View in MoNA
    Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0079-5900000000-fcde26d72ca8445dff7eView in MoNA
    Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00xu-7950000000-cc553d409cc2a872749dView in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000f-9400000000-9fb9f8fbd7cf90a88604View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-f5d09d09184f72ec3bd7View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-d31cea608d0764edf5d0View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-68) , Positivesplash10-00dr-5900000000-9b1d88421f1e1ded16f9View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-60) , Positivesplash10-00di-9700000000-3ac766249fee4c68b8f4View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-0079-6900000000-4e15a4102e0b3bc8ddceView in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4r-9800000000-9e7208bfb79f9cca336bView in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-1ed6d8123d44d126ed64View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-63a0e9c65e315bb89281View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-a8befcaa45eced4a9a51View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-26788d399f2b459abc21View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0072-6900000000-ba06f5c422d59cd10ceaView in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0002-9100000000-193fd4eb0cf324fb3abcView in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0006-9200000000-c834f7be13341f3e19b8View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - DI-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-4f58e660923e896589a3View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4r-9800000000-9e7208bfb79f9cca336bView in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-1ed6d8123d44d126ed64View in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-e80d9637393e63e2d07cView in MoNA
    LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-a8befcaa45eced4a9a51View in MoNA
    Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0079-0900000000-6351b89d53d1742a1fbbView in MoNA
    Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-1900000000-bdd873f3d1dc0f2af556View in MoNA
    Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00fu-9400000000-37262c1edda5dec21a19View in MoNA
    Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-3900000000-fcd512c9827982e7c9aaView in MoNA
    Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000f-9600000000-36013030005316a50fabView in MoNA
    Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9100000000-5efa05442f95e2900559View in MoNA
    MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00dr-6900000000-71548845dbf99346758dView in MoNA
    1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
    1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
    1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
    1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
    1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
    2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
    2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
    ChemSpider ID132
    ChEMBL IDCHEMBL441343
    KEGG Compound IDC00156
    Pubchem Compound ID135
    Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
    ChEBI IDNot Available
    Phenol-Explorer ID418
    DrugBank IDDB04242
    HMDB IDHMDB00500
    CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDFBS67-S:FBS67-S
    EAFUS ID1726
    Dr. Duke ID4-HYDROXY-BENZOIC-ACID|P-HYDROXY-BENZOIC-ACID|HYDROXYBENZOIC-ACID
    BIGG ID34069
    KNApSAcK IDC00000856
    HET IDPHB
    Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
    VMH IDNot Available
    Flavornet IDNot Available
    GoodScent IDrw1040201
    SuperScent IDNot Available
    Wikipedia IDNot Available
    Phenol-Explorer Metabolite ID418
    Duplicate IDSNot Available
    Old DFC IDSNot Available
    Associated Foods
    FoodContent Range AverageReference
    FoodReference
    Biological Effects and Interactions
    Health Effects / Bioactivities
    DescriptorIDDefinitionReference
    anti bacterial33282 A substance that kills or slows the growth of bacteria.DUKE
    anti mutagenicDUKE
    antioxidant22586 A substance that opposes oxidation or inhibits reactions brought about by dioxygen or peroxides. In European countries, E-numbers for permitted antioxidant food additives are from E 300 to E 324.DUKE
    anti radicularDUKE
    anti sicklingDUKE
    cancer preventive35610 A substance that inhibits or prevents the proliferation of neoplasms.DUKE
    fungistatDUKE
    immunosuppressant35705 An agent that suppresses immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-cells or by inhibiting the activation of helper cells. In addition, an immunosuppressive agent is a role played by a compound which is exhibited by a capability to diminish the extent and/or voracity of an immune response.DUKE
    pesticide25944 Strictly, a substance intended to kill pests. In common usage, any substance used for controlling, preventing, or destroying animal, microbiological or plant pests.DUKE
    phytoalexin26115 A toxin made by a plant that acts against an organism attacking it.DUKE
    prostaglandigenicDUKE
    secretogogueDUKE
    ubiquiotDUKE
    Enzymes
    NameGene NameUniProt ID
    4-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyltransferase, mitochondrialCOQ2Q96H96
    Pathways
    NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
    Ubiquinone BiosynthesisSMP00065 map00130
    MetabolismNot Available
    BiosynthesisNot Available
    Organoleptic Properties
    Flavours
    FlavorCitations
    phenolic
    1. The Good Scents Company (2009). Flavor and fragrance information catalog. <http://www.thegoodscentscompany.com/allprod.html> Accessed 15.10.23.
    nutty
    1. The Good Scents Company (2009). Flavor and fragrance information catalog. <http://www.thegoodscentscompany.com/allprod.html> Accessed 15.10.23.
    Files
    MSDSshow
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
    General ReferenceNot Available
    Content Reference— Rothwell JA, Pérez-Jiménez J, Neveu V, Medina-Ramon A, M'Hiri N, Garcia Lobato P, Manach C, Knox K, Eisner R, Wishart D, Scalbert A. (2013) Phenol-Explorer 3.0: a major update of the Phenol-Explorer database to incorporate data on the effects of food processing on polyphenol content. Database, 10.1093/database/bat070.
    — Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).
    — Shinbo, Y., et al. 'KNApSAcK: a comprehensive species-metabolite relationship database.' Plant Metabolomics. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006. 165-181.