Canmetcon

The following entry is an example of an entry for the upcoming version 2.0 release of FooDB. This release of FooDB is under active development. The database so far contains over 25,000 unique compounds. This entry is a work in progress and may change rapidly.

FOOD IDENTIFICATION

General description

Accession Number FOOD000212
Food name Milk
Organism source Cattle (Bos taurus)
Version 1.0
Creation Date 2011-02-15 10:12:49
Update Date 2011-02-28 12:12:49
Synonyms
  • Bos bovis
  • Bos indicus
  • Bos primigenius
  • Bos primigenius indicus
  • Bos primigenius taurus
  • Aurochs
  • Cow
  • Domestic cattle
Description Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals (e.g. cow, goat, sheep). It provides the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. The exact components of raw milk vary by species, but it contains significant amounts of saturated fat, protein and calcium as well as vitamin C. The term milk is also used for white colored, non-animal beverages resembling milk in color and texture such as soy milk, rice milk, almond milk, and coconut milk.

External databases

Organism source
ITIS
(International Taxonomic Information System)
183838
GRIN
(Germplasm Resources Information Network)
Not Available
USDA PLANTS Not Available
PFAF
(Plants For A Future)
Not Available
UniProt Taxonomy 9913
NCBI Taxonomy 9913
Mansfeld's Not Available
Catalogue of Life 6850613
Encyclopedia of Life 10550923
The International Plant Names Index Not Available
Wikipedia Cattle
Wikispecies Bos_taurus
Food product
Wikipedia Milk

FOOD COMPOSITION

Food contents

# Compounds Structures Contents
(mg/100 ml)
Citations
11-MethyladenosineStructureTraces(91)
217-alpha-EstradiolStructure0.000 to 0.004(15, 16, 17)
317-beta-EstradiolStructure0.000 to 0.003(16, 17, 68, 83, 89, 112)
417-beta-Estradiol 3-glucuronideStructure0.001 to 0.003(109)
517-Beta-Estradiol-3,17-beta-sulfateStructureTraces(109)
62-Oxoglutaric acidStructure1.315 to 4.091(29, 44, 45)
724,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3StructureTraces(42)
825,26-Dihydroxyvitamin D3StructureTraces(42)
925-Hydroxyvitamin D3StructureTraces(42)
103'-SialyllactoseStructure4.250 to 71.700(70, 79)
113-Hydroxybutyric acidStructure0.729 to 3.331(27, 55, 61, 82)
123-MethylhistidineStructure2.199(55)
136'-SialyllactosamineStructure1.050 to 10.000(70, 79)
146'-SialyllactoseStructure6.400 to 1950.000(70, 79)
15Acetic acidStructure2.462(55)
16Acetoacetic acidStructure0.408(27)
17AcetoneStructure1.045 to 1.975(27, 55)
18AdenosineStructureTraces(97, 98)
19Adenosine diphosphateStructure0.427(35)
20Adenosine monophosphateStructure1.736(35)
21Adenosine triphosphateStructureTraces(94)
22Aflatoxin M1Structure0.000 to 0.001(25, 93, 105)
23Aflatoxin M2StructureTraces(96)
24AllantoinStructure3.162 to 3.320(34, 106)
25alpha-D-LactoseStructure783.860 to 5360.000(30, 40, 55, 72)
26AluminumStructure0.000 to 0.003(56, 57)
27Aminoadipic acidStructure4.996(55)
28AndrostenedioneStructure0.003 to 0.009(16, 17)
29beta-CaroteneStructure0.000 to 0.070(38, 39, 40, 62, 84, 99)
30beta-D-LactoseStructure2985.172(55)
31BetaineStructure11.012(55)
32Biochanin AStructure0.000 to 0.213(83, 104)
33BiotinStructureTraces(39)
34C10:0 (Capric acid)Structure2.000 to 88.000(40)
35C12:0 (Lauric Acid)Structure2.000 to 128.000(40)
36C14:0 (Myristic acid)Structure10.000 to 464.000(40)
37C14:1 n-5 (Myristoleic acid)Structure1.000 to 41.000(40)
38C15:0 (Pentadecanoic acid)Structure2.000 to 59.000(40)
39C16:0 (Palmitic acid)Structure33.000 to 1255.000(40)
40C16:1 n-7 (Palmitoleic acid)Structure2.000 to 107.000(40)
41C17:0 (Heptadecanoic acid)Structure1.000 to 30.000(40)
42C18:0 (Stearic acid)Structure13.000 to 492.000(40)
43C18:2 (Bovinic acid)Structure17.400 to 77.200(74)
44C18:2 n-6 (Linoleic acid)Structure3.000 to 135.000(40)
45C18:3 n-3 (alpha-Linolenic acid)Structure1.000 to 16.000(40)
46C20:0 (Arachidic acid)Structure1.000 to 9.000(40)
47C20:1 (Eicosenoic acid)Structure3.000 to 32.000(40)
48C20:4 n-6 (Arachidonic acid)Structure1.000 to 6.000(40)
49C22:0 (Behenic acid)Structure1.000 to 2.000(40)
50C22:5 n-3 (Clupanodonic acid)Structure1.000 to 5.000(40)
51C24:0 (Tetracosanoic acid)Structure1.000 to 2.000(40)
52C8:0 (Caprylic acid)Structure4.000 to 39.000(40)
53CadmiumStructureTraces(51)
54CalcitriolStructureTraces(42)
55CalciumStructure0.000 to 165.322(39, 40, 64, 108, 116)
56ChlorineStructureTraces(64)
57CholesterolStructure0.000 to 3.920(39, 40, 100)
58CholineStructure1.146 to 1.563(55, 115)
59ChrysinStructureTraces(83)
60Citric acidStructure58.214 to 187.513(29, 44, 55, 108)
61CobaltStructureTraces(64)
62CopperStructure0.000 to 0.006(12, 39, 40, 64)
63CreatinineStructure0.600 to 1.357(49, 55)
64CytidineStructure0.000 to 0.243(97, 98, 106)
65Cytidine monophosphateStructure0.000 to 1.616(35, 106)
66D-FructoseStructure10.000(40)
67D-GalactoseStructure7.927 to 25.762(29, 40, 55)
68D-GlucoseStructure6.666 to 2140.000(29, 40, 44, 45, 55, 63)
69D-MaltoseStructure10.000(40)
70DaidzeinStructure0.000 to 0.771(3, 83, 104)
71Dehydroascorbic acidStructure0.039 to 0.152(9)
72DehydroepiandrosteroneStructure0.000 to 0.001(16, 17)
73delta-TocopherolStructureTraces(38)
74DisialyllactoseStructure0.450(70)
75EnterodiolStructure0.000 to 0.015(83, 104)
76EnterolactoneStructure0.002 to 3.880(83, 104)
77EpitestosteroneStructure0.000 to 0.001(16, 17)
78EquolStructure0.002 to 36.400(3, 41, 54, 83, 104)
79EstriolStructureTraces(112)
80EstroneStructure0.000 to 0.013(16, 17, 68, 83, 89, 109, 112)
81Estrone 3-glucuronideStructureTraces(109)
82Estrone 3-sulfateStructure0.002(109)
83EthanolamineStructure1.955(55)
84FormononetinStructure0.000 to 0.696(41, 83, 104)
85Fumaric acidStructure0.464(55)
86gama-TocopherolStructure0.001 to 0.003(38)
87GDP-L-FucoseStructure1.768(35)
88GenisteinStructure0.000 to 0.302(3, 54, 104)
89Glucose 1-phosphateStructure0.002(29)
90Glucose 6-phosphateStructure1.041 to 2.081(29, 44, 45)
91Glycerol 3-phosphateStructure1.377 to 1.721(44)
92GlycerophosphocholineStructure22.378(55)
93GlycineStructure4.279 to 75.000(40, 55)
94GlyciteinStructure0.001(83)
95GuanineStructure0.151(106)
96GuanosineStructureTraces(97, 98)
97Guanosine 5'-monophosphateStructure0.000 to 0.363(35, 106)
98HistamineStructure0.047 to 0.066(7)
99HypoxanthineStructure0.136(106)
100InosineStructureTraces(97, 98)
101IodineStructure0.002(4, 5)
102IronStructureTraces(39, 40, 64)
103Isocitric acidStructure2.113 to 4.611(29, 44, 45)
104L-AlanineStructure0.445 to 117.000(40, 55)
105L-alpha-Aminobutyric acidStructure0.103(55)
106L-ArginineStructure75.000 to 123.000(40)
107L-Aspartic acidStructure0.532 to 321.000(40, 55)
108L-CarnitineStructure5.642(55)
109L-CystineStructure17.000 to 127.000(40)
110L-Glutamic acidStructure5.444 to 806.000(40, 55)
111L-HistidineStructure75.000 to 92.000(40)
112L-IsoleucineStructure0.131 to 204.000(40, 55)
113L-Lactic acidStructure0.721 to 15.944(29, 44, 55)
114L-LeucineStructure0.131 to 387.000(40, 55)
115L-LysineStructure0.877 to 296.000(40, 55)
116L-MethionineStructure0.149 to 86.000(40, 55)
117L-PhenylalanineStructure0.000 to 172.000(40, 55)
118L-ProlineStructure0.345 to 380.000(40, 55)
119L-SerineStructure107.000 to 215.000(40)
120L-ThreonineStructure0.238 to 153.000(40, 55)
121L-TryptophanStructure0.000 to 75.000(40, 55)
122L-TyrosineStructure0.181 to 163.000(40, 55)
123L-ValineStructure0.234 to 227.000(40, 55)
124LeadStructureTraces(51, 64, 88, 107)
125LiothyronineStructureTraces(102)
126LuteinStructure0.000 to 0.002(38)
127MagnesiumStructure0.000 to 20.052(39, 40, 64, 108, 116)
128Malic acidStructure3.084(55)
129ManganeseStructure0.000 to 0.003(40, 64, 92)
130MatairesinolStructure0.000 to 0.106(17, 104)
131MelatoninStructureTraces(28)
132MethylamineStructure0.974(73)
133MolybdenumStructure0.001 to 0.002(66)
134N-Acetylgalactosaminyl lactoseStructure0.350(70)
135N-Acetylneuraminic acidStructure0.000 to 1.150(70, 75)
136N6-Carbamoyl-L-threonyladenosineStructureTraces(91)
137NaringeninStructure0.001(83)
138NickelStructureTraces(64)
139Nitric oxideStructure0.000 to 0.030(6)
140Ochratoxin AStructure0.000 to 0.003(11, 101)
141OrnithineStructure0.132(55)
142Orotic acidStructure0.000 to 14.829(30, 35, 49, 53, 76, 77, 95, 106)
143PhosphatidylethanolamineStructure790.000(10)
144PhosphocreatinineStructure33.355(55)
145PhosphorusStructure0.000 to 117.391(39, 40, 64, 108)
146PotassiumStructure0.000 to 152.287(39, 40, 64, 108)
147ProgesteroneStructure0.000 to 0.003(15, 80)
148PrunetinStructure0.037 to 0.101(104)
149PseudouridineStructureTraces(106)
150Pyridoxal 5'-phosphateStructure1.483(14)
151PyridoxamineStructure0.168(14)
152Pyridoxamine 5'-phosphateStructure0.496(14)
153Pyruvic acidStructure0.528 to 0.881(29, 55)
154SecoisolariciresinolStructure0.480 to 0.534(104)
155SeleniumStructure0.001 to 0.004(22, 40)
156SodiumStructureTraces(39, 40, 64)
157SpermidineStructure0.000 to 0.145(78)
158SpermineStructureTraces(78)
159Succinic acidStructure0.709(55)
160SucroseStructure10.000(40)
161TaurineStructure5.882(55)
162TestosteroneStructureTraces(16)
163ThyroxineStructureTraces(102)
164TrimethylamineStructure0.077(73)
165Trimethylamine N-oxideStructure0.376(55)
166UDP-GalactoseStructure3.964(35)
167UreaStructure14.150 to 2600.000(58, 111)
168Uric acidStructure0.000 to 3.362(30, 34, 49, 106)
169UridineStructure0.244 to 1.709(97, 98, 106)
170Uridine 5'-monophosphateStructure6.484(35)
171VanadiumStructureTraces(65)
172Vitamin A (Retinol)Structure0.000 to 0.065(23, 40, 84, 99)
173Vitamin B1 (Thiamine hydrochloride)StructureTraces(40)
174Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)Structure0.000 to 0.001(2, 39, 40)
175Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)StructureTraces(1, 39, 40)
176Vitamin B3 (Niacinamide)StructureTraces(1, 40)
177Vitamin B3 (Nicotinic acid)StructureTraces(1)
178Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)StructureTraces(40)
179Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxal)Structure1.337(14)
180Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)StructureTraces(1)
181Vitamin B9 (Folates)Structure0.005 to 0.008(2, 40)
182Vitamin C (L-Ascorbic Acid)Structure0.000 to 2.700(2, 9, 40)
183Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol)Structure0.000 to 0.001(23, 39, 40, 42)
184Vitamin E (alpha-Tocopherol)Structure0.000 to 0.191(23, 38, 40, 84, 99)
185Vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone)StructureTraces(37, 40)
186XanthineStructure0.152(106)
187ZeaxanthinStructureTraces(38)
188ZincStructure0.000 to 0.458(12, 39, 40, 64, 116)

REFERENCES

    Compositions

  1. Agostini TS, Scherer R, Godoy HT: Simultaneous determination of B-group vitamins in enriched Brazilian dairy products. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2007;47(5):435-9.
  2. Andersson I, Öste R. Nutritional quality of pasteurized milk. Vitamin B12, folate and ascorbic acid content during storage. International Dairy Journal 1994;4(2):161-172.
  3. Antignac JP, Cariou R, Le Bizec B, Cravedi JP, Andre F: Identification of phytoestrogens in bovine milk using liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2003;17(12):1256-64.
  4. Aquaron R, Aquaron C, Daouda H, Madi N, Roux F, Bisset JP: [Study of two goitrous endemic areas in Niger: Belley-Koira and Tiguey-Tallawal]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 1990;51(5-6):231-40.
  5. Aquaron R, Zarrouck K, el Jarari M, Ababou R, Talibi A, Ardissone JP: Endemic goiter in Morocco (Skoura-Toundoute areas in the high atlas). J Endocrinol Invest. 1993 Jan;16(1):9-14.
  6. Atakisi O, Oral H, Atakisi E, Merhan O, Metin Pancarci S, Ozcan A, Marasli S, Polat B, Colak A, Kaya S: Subclinical mastitis causes alterations in nitric oxide, total oxidant and antioxidant capacity in cow milk. Res Vet Sci. 2010 Aug;89(1):10-3. Epub 2010 Feb 4.
  7. Aurand LW, Moore PA, Jones EE: Effect of histamine on bovine milk fatty acids. J Anim Sci. 1980 May;50(5):783-92.
  8. Benchaar C, Petit HV, Berthiaume R, Ouellet DR, Chiquette J, Chouinard PY: Effects of essential oils on digestion, ruminal fermentation, rumen microbial populations, milk production, and milk composition in dairy cows fed alfalfa silage or corn silage. J Dairy Sci. 2007 Feb;90(2):886-97.
  9. Bilic N: Assay for both ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid in dairy foods by high-performance liquid chromatography using precolumn derivatization with methoxy- and ethoxy-1,2-phenylenediamine. J Chromatogr. 1991 May 10;543(2):367-74.
  10. Bitman J, Wood DL: Changes in milk fat phospholipids during lactation. J Dairy Sci. 1990 May;73(5):1208-16.
  11. Breitholtz-Emanuelsson A, Olsen M, Oskarsson A, Palminger I, Hult K: Ochratoxin A in cow's milk and in human milk with corresponding human blood samples. J AOAC Int. 1993 Jul-Aug;76(4):842-6.
  12. Campillo N, Vinas P, Lopez-Garcia I, Hernandez-Cordoba M: Direct determination of copper and zinc in cow milk, human milk and infant formula samples using electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta. 1998 Aug;46(4):615-622.
  13. Coakley M, Barrett E, Murphy JJ, Ross RP, Devery R, Stanton C: Cheese manufacture with milk with elevated conjugated linoleic acid levels caused by dietary manipulation. J Dairy Sci. 2007 Jun;90(6):2919-27.
  14. Coburn SP, Mahuren JD, Pauly TA, Ericson KL, Townsend DW: Alkaline phosphatase activity and pyridoxal phosphate concentrations in the milk of various species. J Nutr. 1992 Dec;122(12):2348-53.
  15. Colazo MG, Ambrose DJ, Kastelic JP, Small JA: Comparison of 2 enzyme immunoassays and a radioimmunoassay for measurement of progesterone concentrations in bovine plasma, skim milk, and whole milk. Can J Vet Res. 2008 Jan;72(1):32-6.
  16. Courant F, Antignac JP, Laille J, Monteau F, Andre F, Le Bizec B: Exposure assessment of prepubertal children to steroid endocrine disruptors. 2. Determination of steroid hormones in milk, egg, and meat samples. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 May 14;56(9):3176-84. Epub 2008 Apr 16.
  17. Courant F, Antignac JP, Maume D, Monteau F, Andre F, Le Bizec B: Determination of naturally occurring oestrogens and androgens in retail samples of milk and eggs. Food Addit Contam. 2007 Dec;24(12):1358-66.
  18. Crop and Food Research. 2008. Concise New Zealand food composition tables, 8th ed. http://www.crop.cri.nz/home/products-services/nutrition/foodcompdata/fcd-products/fcd-food-comp-tables.php Accessed Nov 12, 2010.
  19. Dabeka RW, McKenzie AD: Lead and cadmium levels in commercial infant foods and dietary intake by infants 0-1 year old. Food Addit Contam. 1988 Jul-Sep;5(3):333-42.
  20. Dabeka RW, McKenzie AD: Lead, cadmium, and fluoride levels in market milk and infant formulas in Canada. J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1987 Jul-Aug;70(4):754-7.
  21. Davis TA, Nguyen HV, Garcia-Bravo R, Fiorotto ML, Jackson EM, Reeds PJ: Amino acid composition of the milk of some mammalian species changes with stage of lactation. Br J Nutr. 1994 Dec;72(6):845-53.
  22. Debski B, Picciano MF, Milner JA: Selenium content and distribution of human, cow and goat milk. J Nutr. 1987 Jun;117(6):1091-7.
  23. Delgado Zamarreno MM, Sanchez Perez A, Gomez Perez C, Hernandez Mendez J: High-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection for the simultaneous determination of vitamin A, D3 and E in milk. J Chromatogr. 1992 Oct 9;623(1):69-74.
  24. Dluzniewska K, Tylek D, Baranowska K, Drozdz R, Hennig J, Holynska B, Ostachowicz B, Zysiak M, Potocki A, Pulka J, et al.: [Evaluation of iodine levels in daily dietary intake and urine of persons participating in epidemiological studies in the Krakow macro-region after the disaster in Czernobyl and level of iodine in drinking water of that region]. Endokrynol Pol. 1991;42(2):241-51.
  25. Elgerbi AM, Aidoo KE, Candlish AA, Tester RF: Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in randomly selected North African milk and cheese samples. Food Addit Contam. 2004 Jun;21(6):592-7.
  26. Ellis KA, Monteiro A, Innocent GT, Grove-White D, Cripps P, McLean WG, Howard CV, Mihm M: Investigation of the vitamins A and E and beta-carotene content in milk from UK organic and conventional dairy farms. J Dairy Res. 2007 Nov;74(4):484-91. Epub 2007 Oct 9.
  27. Enjalbert F, Nicot MC, Bayourthe C, Moncoulon R: Ketone bodies in milk and blood of dairy cows: relationship between concentrations and utilization for detection of subclinical ketosis. J Dairy Sci. 2001 Mar;84(3):583-9.
  28. Eriksson L, Valtonen M, Laitinen JT, Paananen M, Kaikkonen M: Diurnal rhythm of melatonin in bovine milk: pharmacokinetics of exogenous melatonin in lactating cows and goats. Acta Vet Scand. 1998;39(3):301-10.
  29. Faulkner A, Pollock HT: Changes in the concentration of metabolites in milk from cows fed on diets supplemented with soyabean oil or fatty acids. J Dairy Res. 1989 May;56(2):179-83.
  30. Ferreira IMPLVO, Gomes AMP, Ferreira MA. Determination of sugars, and some other compounds in infant formulae, follow-up milks and human milk by HPLC-UV/RI. Carbohydrate Polymers 1998 Nov;37(3):225-229.
  31. Food Standards Agency. 2002. McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods integrated dataset (CoF IDS). http://www.food.gov.uk/science/dietarysurveys/dietsurveys/ Acessed Nov 12, 2010.
  32. Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ). 2006. NUTTAB. http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/consumerinformation/nuttab2006 Accessed Nov 18, 2010.
  33. Gazzotti T, Lugoboni B, Zironi E, Barbarossa A, Serraino A, Pagliuca G. Determination of fumonisin B1 in bovine milk by LC-MS/MS. Food Control 2009 Dec;20(12):1171-1174.
  34. Giesecke D, Ehrentreich L, Stangassinger M, Ahrens F: Mammary and renal excretion of purine metabolites in relation to energy intake and milk yield in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 1994 Aug;77(8):2376-81.
  35. Gil A, Sanchez-Medina F: Acid-soluble nucleotides of cow's, goat's and sheep's milks, at different stages of lactation. J Dairy Res. 1981 Feb;48(1):35-44.
  36. Glasser F, Ferlay A, Chilliard Y: Oilseed lipid supplements and fatty acid composition of cow milk: a meta-analysis. J Dairy Sci. 2008 Dec;91(12):4687-703.
  37. Haroon Y, Shearer MJ, Rahim S, Gunn WG, McEnery G, Barkhan P: The content of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in human milk, cows' milk and infant formula foods determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Nutr. 1982 Jun;112(6):1105-17.
  38. Havemose M, Weisbjerg MR, Bredie WL, Nielsen J. Influence of feeding different types of roughage on the oxidative stability of milk. International Dairy Journal 2004 Jul;14(7):563-570.
  39. Health Canada. 2008. Nutrient value of some common foods. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/alt_formats/pdf/nutrition/fiche-nutri-data/nvscf-vnqau-eng.pdf Accessed Nov 16, 2010.
  40. Health Canada. 2009. Canadian Nutrient File http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/cnf-fce/index-eng.jsp Accessed Nov. 10th, 2010.
  41. Hoikkala A, Mustonen E, Saastamoinen I, Jokela T, Taponen J, Saloniemi H, Wahala K: High levels of equol in organic skimmed Finnish cow milk. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Jul;51(7):782-6.
  42. Hollis BW, Roos BA, Draper HH, Lambert PW: Vitamin D and its metabolites in human and bovine milk. J Nutr. 1981 Jul;111(7):1240-8.
  43. Hulshof PJ, van Roekel-Jansen T, van de Bovenkamp P, West CE. Variation in retinol and carotenoid content of milk and milk products in The Netherlands. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 2006 Feb;19(1):67-75.
  44. Hurtaud C, Lemosquet S, Rulquin H: Effect of graded duodenal infusions of glucose on yield and composition of milk from dairy cows. 2. Diets based on grass silage. J Dairy Sci. 2000 Dec;83(12):2952-62.
  45. Hurtaud C, Rulquin H, Verite R: Effects of graded duodenal infusions of glucose on yield and composition of milk from dairy cows. 1. Diets based on corn silage. J Dairy Sci. 1998 Dec;81(12):3239-47.
  46. Indyk HE, Lawrence R, Broda D. The micronutrient content of bovine whole milk powder: Influence of pasture feeding and season. Food Chemistry 1993;46(4):389-396.
  47. Indyk HE, Persson BS, Caselunghe MC, Moberg A, Filonzi EL, Woollard DC: Determination of vitamin B12 in milk products and selected foods by optical biosensor protein-binding assay: method comparison. J AOAC Int. 2002 Jan-Feb;85(1):72-81.
  48. Indyk HE, Woollard DC. The endogenous vitamin K1 content of bovine milk: temporal influence of season and lactation. Food Chemistry 1995;54(4):403-407.
  49. Indyk HE, Woollard DC: Determination of orotic acid, uric acid, and creatinine in milk by liquid chromatography. J AOAC Int. 2004 Jan-Feb;87(1):116-22.
  50. Iqbal S, Zebeli Q, Mazzolari A, Bertoni G, Dunn SM, Yang WZ, Ametaj BN: Feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulates rumen fermentation patterns and increases milk fat content in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2009 Dec;92(12):6023-32.
  51. Jeng SL, Lee SJ, Lin SY: Determination of cadmium and lead in raw milk by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. J Dairy Sci. 1994 Apr;77(4):945-9.
  52. Kanno C, Kanehara N, Shirafuji K, Tanji R, Imai T: Binding form of vitamin B2 in bovine milk: its concentration, distribution and binding linkage. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1991 Feb;37(1):15-27.
  53. Karatas F, Aydin S, Kaygusuzoglu E, Yildiz H, Erulas FA, Ozkan Y: Ghrelin and orotic acid increased in subclinical mastitis. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2008 Jul;114(3):178-82.
  54. King RA, Mano MM, Head RJ: Assessment of isoflavonoid concentrations in Australian bovine milk samples. J Dairy Res. 1998 Aug;65(3):479-89.
  55. Klein MS, Almstetter MF, Schlamberger G, Nurnberger N, Dettmer K, Oefner PJ, Meyer HH, Wiedemann S, Gronwald W: Nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry-based milk metabolomics in dairy cows during early and late lactation. J Dairy Sci. 2010 Apr;93(4):1539-50.
  56. Koo WW, Kaplan LA, Krug-Wispe SK: Aluminum contamination of infant formulas. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1988 Mar-Apr;12(2):170-3.
  57. Koo WW, Kaplan LA: Aluminum and bone disorders: with specific reference to aluminum contamination of infant nutrients. J Am Coll Nutr. 1988 Jun;7(3):199-214.
  58. Korhonen M, Vanhatalo A, Huhtanen P: Evaluation of isoleucine, leucine, and valine as a second-limiting amino acid for milk production in dairy cows fed grass silage diet. J Dairy Sci. 2002 Jun;85(6):1533-45.
  59. Krachler M, Rossipal E, Irgolic KJ: Traces elements in formulas based on cow and soy milk and in Austrian cow milk determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Biol Traces Elem Res. 1998 Oct;65(1):53-74.
  60. Kuhnle GG, Dell'Aquila C, Aspinall SM, Runswick SA, Mulligan AA, Bingham SA: Phytoestrogen content of foods of animal origin: dairy products, eggs, meat, fish, and seafood. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Nov 12;56(21):10099-104. Epub 2008 Oct 16.
  61. Larsen T, Nielsen NI: Fluorometric determination of beta-hydroxybutyrate in milk and blood plasma. J Dairy Sci. 2005 Jun;88(6):2004-9.
  62. Larson LL, Wallen SE, Owen FG, Lowry SR: Relation of age, season, production, and health indices to iodine and beta-carotene concentrations in cow's milk. J Dairy Sci. 1983 Dec;66(12):2557-62.
  63. Lehloenya KV, Stein DR, Allen DT, Selk GE, Jones DA, Aleman MM, Rehberger TG, Mertz KJ, Spicer LJ: Effects of feeding yeast and propionibacteria to dairy cows on milk yield and components, and reproduction*. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2008 Apr;92(2):190-202.
  64. Lopez A, Collins W, Williams H. Essential Elements, Cadmium, and Lead in Raw and Pasteurized Cow and Goat Milk. Journal of Dairy Science 1985;68(8):1878-1886.
  65. Lopez-Garcia I, Vinas P, Romero-Romero R, Hernandez-Cordoba M: Ion-exchange preconcentration and determination of vanadium in milk samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta. 2009 Jun 15;78(4-5):1458-63. Epub 2009 Mar 5.
  66. Lopez-Garcia I, Vinas P, Romero-Romero R, Hernandez-Cordoba M: Liquid chromatography-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the separation and preconcentration of molybdenum in milk and infant formulas. Anal Chim Acta. 2007 Aug 6;597(2):187-94. Epub 2007 Jul 5.
  67. Lunden A, Gustafsson V, Imhof M, Gauch R, Bosset JO: High trimethylamine concentration in milk from cows on standard diets is expressed as fishy off-flavour. J Dairy Res. 2002 Aug;69(3):383-90.
  68. Malekinejad H, Scherpenisse P, Bergwerff AA: Naturally occurring estrogens in processed milk and in raw milk (from gestated cows). J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Dec 27;54(26):9785-91.
  69. Marsili RT, Ostapenko H, Simmons RE, Green DE. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Organic Acids in Dairy Products. J Food Science 1981;46(1):52-57.
  70. McJarrow P, van Amelsfort-Schoonbeek J. Bovine sialyl oligosaccharides: seasonal variations in their concentrations in milk, and a comparison of the colostrums of Jersey and Friesian cows. International Dairy Journal 2004 Jul;14(7):571-579.
  71. McLaughlin CL, Thompson A, Greenwood K, Sherington J, Bruce C: Effect of acarbose on milk yield and composition in early-lactation dairy cattle fed a ration to induce subacute ruminal acidosis. J Dairy Sci. 2009 Sep;92(9):4481-8.
  72. Mehra R, Kelly P. Milk oligosaccharides: Structural and technological aspects. International Dairy Journal 2006 Nov;16(11):1334-1340.
  73. Mehta R, Bassette R, Ward G. Trimethylamine Responsible for Fishy Flavor in Milk from Cows on Wheat Pasture. Journal of Dairy Science 1974 Mar;57(3):285-289.
  74. Mohammed R, Stanton CS, Kennelly JJ, Kramer JK, Mee JF, Glimm DR, O'Donovan M, Murphy JJ: Grazing cows are more efficient than zero-grazed and grass silage-fed cows in milk rumenic acid production. J Dairy Sci. 2009 Aug;92(8):3874-93.
  75. Morrissey PA. The N-Acetyl Neuraminic-Acid Content of the Milk of Various Species. Journal of Dairy Research 1973;40(03):421-425.
  76. Motyl T, Barej W, Leontowicz H: The orotic acid concentration in the blood, milk, and urine of dairy cows fed with urea supplemented diet. Arch Tierernahr. 1986 Jun;36(6):551-6.
  77. Motyl T, Krzeminski J, Podgurniak M, Witeszczak C, Zochowski P: Variability of orotic acid concentration in cow's milk. Endocr Regul. 1991 Jun;25(1-2):79-82.
  78. Motyl T, Ploszaj T, Wojtasik A, Kukulska W, Podgurniak M: Polyamines in cow's and sow's milk. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1995 Jul;111(3):427-33.
  79. Nakamura T, Kawase H, Kimura K, Watanabe Y, Ohtani M, Arai I, Urashima T: Concentrations of sialyloligosaccharides in bovine colostrum and milk during the prepartum and early lactation. J Dairy Sci. 2003 Apr;86(4):1315-20.
  80. Narendran R, Hacker RR, Smith VG, Lun A: Estrogen and progesterone concentrations in bovine milk during the estrous cycle. Theriogenology. 1979 Jul;12(1):19-25.
  81. National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark. 2009. Danish food composition databank, edition 7.01. http://www.foodcomp.dk/v7/fcdb_default.asp Accessed Nov 14, 2010.
  82. Nielsen NI, Ingvartsen KL, Larsen T: Diurnal variation and the effect of feed restriction on plasma and milk metabolites in TMR-fed dairy cows. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2003 Mar;50(2):88-97.
  83. Nielsen TS, Norgaard JV, Purup S, Frette XC, Bonefeld-Jorgensen EC: Estrogenic activity of bovine milk high or low in equol using immature mouse uterotrophic responses and an estrogen receptor transactivation assay. Cancer Epidemiol. 2009 Jul;33(1):61-8. Epub 2009 May 31.
  84. Noziere P, Grolier P, Durand D, Ferlay A, Pradel P, Martin B: Variations in carotenoids, fat-soluble micronutrients, and color in cows' plasma and milk following changes in forage and feeding level. J Dairy Sci. 2006 Jul;89(7):2634-48.
  85. NRC. 1989. Recommended Dietary Allowances. 10th ed. Natl.
  86. Acad. Press, Washington, DC.
  87. Okano T, Yokoshima K, Kobayashi T: High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of vitamin D3 in bovine colostrum, early and later milk. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1984 Oct;30(5):431-9.
  88. Ostapczuk P, Valenta P, Rutzel H, Nurnberg HW: Application of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry to the determination of heavy metals in environmental samples. Sci Total Environ. 1987 Feb;60:1-16.
  89. Pape-Zambito DA, Roberts RF, Kensinger RS: Estrone and 17beta-estradiol concentrations in pasteurized-homogenized milk and commercial dairy products. J Dairy Sci. 2010 Jun;93(6):2533-40.
  90. Precht D: Cholesterol content in European bovine milk fats. Nahrung. 2001 Feb;45(1):2-8.
  91. Raezke KP, Schlimme E: [Ribonucleosides in milk: characterization and determination of the concentration profile of these minor components throughout a lactation period]. Z Naturforsch C. 1990 Jun;45(6):655-62.
  92. Raghib MH, Chan WY, Rennert OM: Comparative biological availability of manganese from extrinsically labelled milk diets using sucking rats as a model. Br J Nutr. 1986 Jan;55(1):49-58.
  93. Rahimi E, Bonyadian M, Rafei M, Kazemeini HR: Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of five dairy species in Ahvaz, Iran. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 Jan;48(1):129-31. Epub 2009 Sep 26.
  94. Richardson T, McGann TC, Kearney RD: Levels and location of adenosine 5'-triphosphate in bovine milk. J Dairy Res. 1980 Feb;47(1):91-6.
  95. Robinson JL, Dombrowski DB, Clark JH, Shanks RD: Orotate in milk and urine of dairy cows with a partial deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase. J Dairy Sci. 1984 May;67(5):1024-9.
  96. Rodriguez Velasco ML, Calonge Delso MM, Ordonez Escudero D: ELISA and HPLC determination of the occurrence of aflatoxin M(1) in raw cow's milk. Food Addit Contam. 2003 Mar;20(3):276-80.
  97. Schlimme E, Martin D, Meisel H: Nucleosides and nucleotides: natural bioactive substances in milk and colostrum. Br J Nutr. 2000 Nov;84 Suppl 1:S59-68.
  98. Schlimme E, Raezke KP, Ott FG: Ribonucleosides as minor milk constituents. Z Ernahrungswiss. 1991 Jun;30(2):138-52.
  99. Shah NP, Lankaputhra WEV, Britz ML, Kyle WSA. Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in commercial yoghurt during refrigerated storage. International Dairy Journal 1995;5(5):515-521.
  100. Shi Y, Zhang JH, Shi D, Jiang M, Zhu YX, Mei SR, Zhou YK, Dai K, Lu B: Selective solid-phase extraction of cholesterol using molecularly imprinted polymers and its application in different biological samples. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006 Nov 16;42(5):549-55. Epub 2006 Jul 21.
  101. Skaug MA: Analysis of Norwegian milk and infant formulas for ochratoxin A. Food Addit Contam. 1999 Feb;16(2):75-8.
  102. Slebodzinski AB, Nowak J, Gawecka H, Sechman A: Thyroid hormones and insulin in milk; a comparative study. Endocrinol Exp. 1986 Aug;20(2-3):247-55.
  103. Spichtig V, Michaud J, Austin S: Determination of sialic acids in milks and milk-based products. Anal Biochem. 2010 Oct 1;405(1):28-40. Epub 2010 Jun 8.
  104. Steinshamn H, Purup S, Thuen E, Hansen-Moller J: Effects of clover-grass silages and concentrate supplementation on the content of phytoestrogens in dairy cow milk. J Dairy Sci. 2008 Jul;91(7):2715-25.
  105. Sugiyama K, Hiraoka H, Sugita-Konishi Y: Aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw bulk milk and the presence of aflatoxin B1 in corn supplied to dairy cattle in Japan. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2008;49(5):352-5.
  106. Tiemeyer W, Stohrer M, Giesecke D: Metabolites of nucleic acids in bovine milk. J Dairy Sci. 1984 Apr;67(4):723-8.
  107. Tripathi RM, Raghunath R, Sastry VN, Krishnamoorthy TM: Daily intake of heavy metals by infants through milk and milk products. Sci Total Environ. 1999 Mar 9;227(2-3):229-35.
  108. Tsioulpas A, Grandison AS, Lewis MJ: Changes in physical properties of bovine milk from the colostrum period to early lactation. J Dairy Sci. 2007 Nov;90(11):5012-7.
  109. Tso J, Aga DS: A systematic investigation to optimize simultaneous extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of estrogens and their conjugated metabolites in milk. J Chromatogr A. 2010 Jul 16;1217(29):4784-95. Epub 2010 May 25.
  110. USDA, ARS. 2010. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23. http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=8964 Accessed Nov. 15, 2010.
  111. Vanhatalo A, Kuoppala K, Ahvenjarvi S, Rinne M: Effects of feeding grass or red clover silage cut at two maturity stages in dairy cows. 1. Nitrogen metabolism and supply of amino acids. J Dairy Sci. 2009 Nov;92(11):5620-33.
  112. Wolford ST, Argoudelis CJ: Measurement of estrogens in cow's milk, human milk, and dairy products. J Dairy Sci. 1979 Sep;62(9):1458-63.
  113. Woollard DC, Indyk HE, Woollard GA. Carnitine in milk: a survey of content, distribution and temporal variation. Food Chemistry 1999 Jul;66(1):121-127.
  114. Yanardag R, Orak H: Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II. Biol Traces Elem Res. 1999 Apr;68(1):79-95.
  115. Zeisel SH, Char D, Sheard NF: Choline, phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in human and bovine milk and infant formulas. J Nutr. 1986 Jan;116(1):50-8.
  116. Zhang P, Allen JC: A novel dialysis procedure measuring free Zn2+ in bovine milk and plasma. J Nutr. 1995 Jul;125(7):1904-10.
  117. Zinsstag J, Schelling E, Daoud S, Schierle J, Hofmann P, Diguimbaye C, Daugla DM, Ndoutamia G, Knopf L, Vounatsou P, Tanner M: Serum retinol of Chadian nomadic pastoralist women in relation to their livestocks' milk retinol and beta-carotene content. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2002 Jul;72(4):221-8.
  118. Zougagh M, Rios A: Supercritical fluid extraction as an on-line clean-up technique for determination of riboflavin vitamins in food samples by capillary electrophoresis with fluorimetric detection. Electrophoresis. 2008 Aug;29(15):3213-9.