Record Information
Version1.0
Creation date2010-04-08 22:04:44 UTC
Update date2020-09-17 15:38:22 UTC
Primary IDFDB000844
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB NameGentisic acid
DescriptionGentisic acid, also known as gentisate or 2,5-dioxybenzoate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. Hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives are compounds containing a hydroxybenzoic acid (or a derivative), which is a benzene ring bearing a carboxyl and a hydroxyl groups. A dihydroxybenzoic acid having the two hydroxy groups at the 2- and 5-positions. Gentisic acid is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). Gentisic acid exists in all living organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. Outside of the human body, Gentisic acid is found, on average, in the highest concentration within a few different foods, such as tarragons, common thymes, and common sages and in a lower concentration in lemon balms, parsley, and soy beans. Gentisic acid has also been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as garden tomato (var.), cocoa beans, spearmints, common pea, and carrots. This could make gentisic acid a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods.
CAS Number490-79-9
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymSource
2,5-DihydroxybenzoateChEBI
5-Hydroxysalicylic acidChEBI
GentisateChEBI
Hydroquinonecarboxylic acidChEBI
2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acidKegg
5-HydroxysalicylateGenerator
HydroquinonecarboxylateGenerator
2,5-DioxybenzoateHMDB
2,5-Dioxybenzoic acidHMDB
3,6-DihydroxybenzoateHMDB
3,6-Dihydroxybenzoic acidHMDB
5-Hydroxy-salicylateHMDB
5-Hydroxy-salicylic acidHMDB
CarboxyhydroquinoneHMDB
DihydroxybenzoicacidHMDB
GensigenHMDB
GensigonHMDB
GentisinateHMDB
Gentisinic acidHMDB
2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, monosodium saltHMDB
Lithium 2,5-dihydroxybenzoateHMDB
Gentisic acidChEBI
Hydroquinone carboxylic acidHMDB
Gentisic acid, 8CI, INNdb_source
Hydroxyquinonecarboxylic aciddb_source
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility12.3 g/LALOGPS
logP1.23ALOGPS
logP1.67ChemAxon
logS-1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.53ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area77.76 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity37.28 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC7H6O4
IUPAC name2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C7H6O4/c8-4-1-2-6(9)5(3-4)7(10)11/h1-3,8-9H,(H,10,11)
InChI KeyWXTMDXOMEHJXQO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Isomeric SMILESOC(=O)C1=C(O)C=CC(O)=C1
Average Molecular Weight154.121
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight154.026608673
Classification
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. Hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives are compounds containing a hydroxybenzoic acid (or a derivative), which is a benzene ring bearing a carboxyl and a hydroxyl groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentHydroxybenzoic acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dihydroxybenzoic acid
  • Salicylic acid
  • Salicylic acid or derivatives
  • Hydroxybenzoic acid
  • Benzoic acid
  • Benzoyl
  • Hydroquinone
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Phenol
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
PropertyValueReference
Physical stateSolid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionC 54.55%; H 3.92%; O 41.52%DFC
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
EI-MS/GC-MS
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
EI-MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0f79-7900000000-4ac54ba9a72c8707055dSpectrum
EI-MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-9800000000-24fa3ff739ff064312abSpectrum
EI-MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-8900000000-5b42adf83e422cffefb6Spectrum
GC-MSGentisic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0a4i-0849000000-d6f7b541cabdb5e20dd6Spectrum
GC-MSGentisic acid, 3 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0a4i-3955000000-215d684d2fae395f2e76Spectrum
GC-MSGentisic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-03di-2009080030-be174b5f8728c96650e7Spectrum
GC-MSGentisic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0a4i-0229000000-a4712abe7c7db86a97beSpectrum
GC-MSGentisic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0a4i-0849000000-d6f7b541cabdb5e20dd6Spectrum
GC-MSGentisic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0a4i-3955000000-215d684d2fae395f2e76Spectrum
GC-MSGentisic acid, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0a4i-1946000000-be25f693c540abb01bdeSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSGentisic acid, non-derivatized, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-114r-2900000000-c5a4c512f555f4ebce47Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSGentisic acid, 3 TMS, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-008a-5092000000-1b91af6751ccb58c613cSpectrum
MS/MS
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0zfr-0900000000-816a84a65cefa1b31731Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-1900000000-977e85749e8fa31315c5Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-1900000000-086d66fbe2d41a2d725cSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-e3a62163a69461ab2cffSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-06431a9cf0c877732fe5Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-e938fddf26a9bb2cd9e3Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-38ef6d9660431bec9b3bSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-ac95d834c95477f325a7Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - MALDI-TOF (Voyager DE-PRO, Applied Biosystems) , Positivesplash10-004r-1913000000-eba82100caa3c2664508Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - MALDI-TOF (Voyager DE-PRO, Applied Biosystems) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0902000000-6cc114aa94b58c53c123Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - MALDI-TOF (Voyager DE-PRO, Applied Biosystems) , Positivesplash10-0k9i-0930000000-4388abc8fe86bc940e89Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - MALDI-TOF (Voyager DE-PRO, Applied Biosystems) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0901000000-077381dba9d80706a097Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - MALDI-TOF (Voyager DE-PRO, Applied Biosystems) , Positivesplash10-0fri-0930000000-4e24b1261f33fba704e2Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-000b-9800000000-35424c6ac43370b30b89Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-56fe39ec90c2e54662dbSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-0pdi-0439000000-d097f2b9a5189bc4bb0fSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-0pdi-0439000000-d097f2b9a5189bc4bb0fSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-0pdi-0439000000-d097f2b9a5189bc4bb0fSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-ddf5ec6162fb4b835c3aSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-0fe66ae910e6a6a75fd0Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4r-0900000000-92d150f8439f22e9e2bbSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a7i-9400000000-b1783532af734cb7e8c4Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0zfr-0900000000-64a4c14f26bc9fcf8dfaSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-acfcb8c4421ee8a0c31cSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-4900000000-dd5469400fff82ccc358Spectrum
NMR
TypeDescriptionView
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumSpectrum
ChemSpider ID3350
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1461
KEGG Compound IDC00628
Pubchem Compound ID3469
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer ID416
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB00152
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDBJR95-G:BJR95-G
EAFUS IDNot Available
Dr. Duke ID2,5-DIHYDROXYBENZOIC-ACID|GENTISIC-ACID
BIGG IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDC00002648
HET IDGTQ
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDGentisic_acid
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite ID416
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
FoodReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / Bioactivities
DescriptorIDDefinitionReference
analgesic35480 An agent capable of relieving pain without the loss of consciousness or without producing anaesthesia. In addition, analgesic is a role played by a compound which is exhibited by a capability to cause a reduction of pain symptoms.DUKE
anti bacterial33282 A substance that kills or slows the growth of bacteria.DUKE
anti feedantDUKE
anti inflammatory35472 A substance that reduces or suppresses inflammation.DUKE
antioxidant22586 A substance that opposes oxidation or inhibits reactions brought about by dioxygen or peroxides. In European countries, E-numbers for permitted antioxidant food additives are from E 300 to E 324.DUKE
anti rheumatic52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti viral22587 A substance that destroys or inhibits replication of viruses.DUKE
pesticide25944 Strictly, a substance intended to kill pests. In common usage, any substance used for controlling, preventing, or destroying animal, microbiological or plant pests.DUKE
EnzymesNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
FlavoursNot Available
Files
MSDSshow
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference— Rothwell JA, Pérez-Jiménez J, Neveu V, Medina-Ramon A, M'Hiri N, Garcia Lobato P, Manach C, Knox K, Eisner R, Wishart D, Scalbert A. (2013) Phenol-Explorer 3.0: a major update of the Phenol-Explorer database to incorporate data on the effects of food processing on polyphenol content. Database, 10.1093/database/bat070.
— Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).
— Shinbo, Y., et al. 'KNApSAcK: a comprehensive species-metabolite relationship database.' Plant Metabolomics. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006. 165-181.