Record Information
Version1.0
Creation date2010-04-08 22:05:10 UTC
Update date2020-09-17 15:42:08 UTC
Primary IDFDB001931
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • FDB031187
Chemical Information
FooDB NameSuccinic acid
DescriptionSuccinic acid is a four-carbon acyclic dicarboxylic acid. It is a white, odorless solid with a highly acidic taste. It is used as a flavoring agent, contributing a sour and astringent component characteristic of the umami taste (PMID:21932253). The anion, succinate, is a key component of the citric acid or TCA cycle and is capable of donating electrons to the electron transfer chain. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) plays an important role in mitochondrial function, being both part of the respiratory chain and the Krebs cycle. SDH, with a covalently attached FAD prosthetic group, is able to bind several different enzyme substrates (succinate and fumarate) and physiological regulators (oxaloacetate and ATP). Oxidizing succinate links SDH to the fast-cycling Krebs cycle portion where it participates in the breakdown of acetyl-CoA throughout the entire Krebs cycle. Succinic acid has been found to be associated with D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, which is an inborn error of metabolism. Succinic acid is also a microbial metabolite. Indeed, urinary succinic acid is produced by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Citrobactes frundii, Enterococcus faecalis (PMID: 22292465). Succinic acid is also found in Actinobacillus, Anaerobiospirillum, Mannheimia, Corynebacterium and Basfia (PMID: 22292465; PMID: 18191255; PMID: 26360870). Succinic acid, or its anion succinate, is used as an excipient in pharmaceutical products to control acidity or as a counter ion. Drugs involving succinate include metoprolol succinate, sumatriptan succinate, Doxylamine succinate or solifenacin succinate. In 2004, succinic acid was identified by the Department of Energy of the United States of America as one of twelve molecules that can be produced from plant sugars through biological or chemical processes and that have a potential to subsequently be converted to a number of high-value bio-based chemicals or materials.
CAS Number110-15-6
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymSource
1,2-Ethanedicarboxylatebiospider
1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acidbiospider
1,4-Butanedioatebiospider
1,4-Butanedioic acidbiospider
1,4-BUTANEDIOIC ACID (SUCCINIC ACID)biospider
1czebiospider
Acid of amberbiospider
Acide butanedioiqueChEBI
Acide succiniqueChEBI
Acidum succinicumbiospider
Amber aciddb_source
Amber acid, butanedioic acid, ethylenesuccinic acidbiospider
Ammonium succinatebiospider
Asuccinbiospider
BernsteinsaeureChEBI
ButandisaeureChEBI
Butanedioic acidbiospider
Butanedioic acid (9CI)biospider
Butanedioic acid diammonium saltbiospider
Butanedioic acid, 9CIdb_source
ButanedionateGenerator
Butanedionic acidbiospider
Dihydrofumaratebiospider
Dihydrofumaric acidbiospider
E363db_source
Ethane-1,2-dicarboxylic aciddb_source
Ethanedicarboxylic acidbiospider
Ethylene dicarboxylic acidbiospider
Ethylene succinic acidbiospider
EthylenesuccinateGenerator
Ethylenesuccinic acidbiospider
FMRbiospider
HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOHbiospider
Katasuccinbiospider
MAEbiospider
Potassium succinatebiospider
Sal succinibiospider
Salt of amberbiospider
SINbiospider
Spirit of amberbiospider
SUCbiospider
SUCCbiospider
Succinatebiospider
succinate, 9biospider
Succinellitebiospider
Succinic acid (8CI)biospider
Succinic acid, acsbiospider
Succinicum acidumbiospider
Succinicun acidumbiospider
Wormwoodbiospider
Wormwood aciddb_source
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Chemical FormulaC4H6O4
IUPAC name
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C4H6O4/c5-3(6)1-2-4(7)8/h1-2H2,(H,5,6)(H,7,8)
InChI KeyKDYFGRWQOYBRFD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Isomeric SMILESOC(=O)CCC(O)=O
Average Molecular Weight118.088
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight118.02660868
Classification
ClassificationNot classified
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
PropertyValueReference
Physical stateSolid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionC 40.68%; H 5.12%; O 54.19%DFC
Melting PointMp 184-185°DFC
Boiling PointBp 235° dec.DFC
Experimental Water Solubility83.2 mg/mL at 25 oCYALKOWSKY,SH & HE,Y (2003)
Experimental logP-0.59HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Experimental pKapKa2 5.7 (25°, H2O)DFC
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
EI-MS/GC-MSNot Available
MS/MSNot Available
NMRNot Available
ChemSpider ID1078
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL576
KEGG Compound IDC00042
Pubchem Compound ID1110
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15741
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDDB00139
HMDB IDHMDB00254
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDCBG32-P:CBG32-P
EAFUS ID3557
Dr. Duke IDSUCCINIC-ACID
BIGG ID33633
KNApSAcK IDC00001205
HET IDSIN
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDrw1040431
SuperScent ID1110
Wikipedia IDSuccinic acid
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
FoodReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / Bioactivities
DescriptorIDDefinitionReference
additive64047 Any substance which is added to food to preserve or enhance its flavour and/or appearance.DUKE
anti feedantDUKE
bruchiphobeDUKE
cancer preventive35610 A substance that inhibits or prevents the proliferation of neoplasms.DUKE
dye37958 DUKE
perfumery48318 A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell.DUKE
pesticide25944 Strictly, a substance intended to kill pests. In common usage, any substance used for controlling, preventing, or destroying animal, microbiological or plant pests.DUKE
anti ulcer49201 One of various classes of drugs with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate peptic ulcer or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract.CHEBI
EnzymesNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
Flavours
FlavorCitations
sour
  1. Dunkel, M. et al. SuperScent – a database of flavors and scents. Nucleic Acids Research 2008, doi:10.1093/nar/gkn695
odorless
  1. The Good Scents Company (2009). Flavor and fragrance information catalog. <http://www.thegoodscentscompany.com/allprod.html> Accessed 15.10.23.
Files
MSDSshow
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference— Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).
— Shinbo, Y., et al. 'KNApSAcK: a comprehensive species-metabolite relationship database.' Plant Metabolomics. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006. 165-181.