Record Information
Version1.0
Creation date2010-04-08 22:05:10 UTC
Update date2020-09-17 15:42:08 UTC
Primary IDFDB001931
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • FDB031187
Chemical Information
FooDB NameSuccinic acid
DescriptionSuccinic acid is a four-carbon acyclic dicarboxylic acid. It is a white, odorless solid with a highly acidic taste. It is used as a flavoring agent, contributing a sour and astringent component characteristic of the umami taste (PMID:21932253). The anion, succinate, is a key component of the citric acid or TCA cycle and is capable of donating electrons to the electron transfer chain. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) plays an important role in mitochondrial function, being both part of the respiratory chain and the Krebs cycle. SDH, with a covalently attached FAD prosthetic group, is able to bind several different enzyme substrates (succinate and fumarate) and physiological regulators (oxaloacetate and ATP). Oxidizing succinate links SDH to the fast-cycling Krebs cycle portion where it participates in the breakdown of acetyl-CoA throughout the entire Krebs cycle. Succinic acid has been found to be associated with D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, which is an inborn error of metabolism. Succinic acid is also a microbial metabolite. Indeed, urinary succinic acid is produced by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Citrobactes frundii, Enterococcus faecalis (PMID: 22292465). Succinic acid is also found in Actinobacillus, Anaerobiospirillum, Mannheimia, Corynebacterium and Basfia (PMID: 22292465; PMID: 18191255; PMID: 26360870). Succinic acid, or its anion succinate, is used as an excipient in pharmaceutical products to control acidity or as a counter ion. Drugs involving succinate include metoprolol succinate, sumatriptan succinate, Doxylamine succinate or solifenacin succinate. In 2004, succinic acid was identified by the Department of Energy of the United States of America as one of twelve molecules that can be produced from plant sugars through biological or chemical processes and that have a potential to subsequently be converted to a number of high-value bio-based chemicals or materials.
CAS Number110-15-6
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymSource
1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acidChEBI
Acide butanedioiqueChEBI
Acide succiniqueChEBI
Acidum succinicumChEBI
Amber acidChEBI
AsuccinChEBI
BernsteinsaeureChEBI
ButandisaeureChEBI
Butanedionic acidChEBI
Dihydrofumaric acidChEBI
e363ChEBI
Ethylenesuccinic acidChEBI
HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOHChEBI
Spirit OF amberChEBI
1,2-EthanedicarboxylateGenerator
ButanedionateGenerator
DihydrofumarateGenerator
EthylenesuccinateGenerator
SuccinateGenerator
2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucoseHMDB
D-GlcNAcHMDB
N-Acetyl-D-glucosamineHMDB
N-AcetylchitosamineHMDB
N Acetyl D glucosamineHMDB
2 Acetamido 2 deoxy D glucoseHMDB
2 Acetamido 2 deoxyglucoseHMDB
2-Acetamido-2-deoxyglucoseHMDB
AcetylglucosamineHMDB
1,4-ButanedioateHMDB
1,4-Butanedioic acidHMDB
KatasuccinHMDB
Wormwood acidHMDB
1,2 Ethanedicarboxylic acidHMDB
1,4 Butanedioic acidHMDB
Potassium succinateHMDB
Succinate, ammoniumHMDB
Butanedioic acidHMDB
Succinate, potassiumHMDB
Ammonium succinateHMDB
1,4-BUTANEDIOIC ACID (SUCCINIC ACID)biospider
1czebiospider
Acid of amberbiospider
Amber acid, butanedioic acid, ethylenesuccinic acidbiospider
Butanedioic acid (9CI)biospider
Butanedioic acid diammonium saltbiospider
Butanedioic acid, 9CIdb_source
E363db_source
Ethane-1,2-dicarboxylic aciddb_source
Ethanedicarboxylic acidbiospider
Ethylene dicarboxylic acidbiospider
Ethylene succinic acidbiospider
FMRbiospider
MAEbiospider
Sal succinibiospider
Salt of amberbiospider
SINbiospider
Spirit of amberbiospider
SUCbiospider
SUCCbiospider
succinate, 9biospider
Succinellitebiospider
Succinic acid (8CI)biospider
Succinic acid, acsbiospider
Succinicum acidumbiospider
Succinicun acidumbiospider
Wormwoodbiospider
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility211 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.53ALOGPS
logP-0.4ChemAxon
logS0.25ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.55ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.6 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity23.54 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.14 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC4H6O4
IUPAC namebutanedioic acid
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C4H6O4/c5-3(6)1-2-4(7)8/h1-2H2,(H,5,6)(H,7,8)
InChI KeyKDYFGRWQOYBRFD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Isomeric SMILESOC(=O)CCC(O)=O
Average Molecular Weight118.088
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight118.02660868
Classification
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dicarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing exactly two carboxylic acid groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentDicarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
PropertyValueReference
Physical stateSolid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionC 40.68%; H 5.12%; O 54.19%DFC
Melting PointMp 184-185°DFC
Boiling PointBp 235° dec.DFC
Experimental Water Solubility83.2 mg/mL at 25 oCYALKOWSKY,SH & HE,Y (2003)
Experimental logP-0.59HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Experimental pKapKa2 5.7 (25°, H2O)DFC
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0002-0920000000-f286e6204a4163b823baJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0900000000-bf336910bb37d7f78140JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-006t-9800000000-df5ff4e8457d2d4ef919JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-00c1-3930000000-3cc18e719822b5af661aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-9000000000-93b4807ae6275a3e59d7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0kos-9100000000-f1df0903a24c305e68ecJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0910000000-300c33b39fb991b5a73eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0920000000-f286e6204a4163b823baJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0900000000-bf336910bb37d7f78140JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-006t-9800000000-df5ff4e8457d2d4ef919JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00c1-3930000000-3cc18e719822b5af661aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-0900000000-f838d863ee7c2b111f02JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00xr-9300000000-f0644daf4fbb11fcc2dcJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dj-9710000000-ff8325384b9eefd19106JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9300000000-f9dc864d93a09d3074f9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9300000000-76c151de384928b2256fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-01b9-7900000000-51d2341c097f04827944JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (Unknown) , Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-93b4807ae6275a3e59d7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03dj-0971010000-37d214dc7a8fdc26116bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-249222ac742c1634cec9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-6897d49472dba6a34a27JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0490000000-d138f8023125921b4b82JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-1900000000-4ffdabe5bde527b66982JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9100000000-c20baa818f5ff5f678c1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-7a49a18aa6fcb2540a12JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-9955aeb0e5a9f88ae70eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-7e1f195f111b4eafb4faJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-00xr-9400000000-e50afc90e20cd420ba9bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-00xr-9600000000-43167f2549cbb5d5f7e8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-014i-1900000000-4ffdabe5bde527b66982JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9100000000-7a8bfa543dc087bea06dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-fdec6c7458176f3cbeb8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-9955aeb0e5a9f88ae70eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0gb9-2900000000-9d959a53833b07094158JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0l6r-9600000000-c367e11e737714d41418JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-056r-9000000000-e65aa602a8293debec36JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-2900000000-e1f840494c9003279869JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-7900000000-1089efd4a3469bcf14f1JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0604-9000000000-0e0e60bb202ffb004894JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-05di-9100000000-c629bea41d0d3d896425JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
ChemSpider ID1078
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL576
KEGG Compound IDC00042
Pubchem Compound ID1110
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15741
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDDB00139
HMDB IDHMDB00254
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDCBG32-P:CBG32-P
EAFUS ID3557
Dr. Duke IDSUCCINIC-ACID
BIGG ID33633
KNApSAcK IDC00001205
HET IDSIN
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDrw1040431
SuperScent ID1110
Wikipedia IDSuccinic acid
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
FoodReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / Bioactivities
DescriptorIDDefinitionReference
additive64047 Any substance which is added to food to preserve or enhance its flavour and/or appearance.DUKE
anti feedantDUKE
bruchiphobeDUKE
cancer preventive35610 A substance that inhibits or prevents the proliferation of neoplasms.DUKE
dye37958 DUKE
perfumery48318 A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell.DUKE
pesticide25944 Strictly, a substance intended to kill pests. In common usage, any substance used for controlling, preventing, or destroying animal, microbiological or plant pests.DUKE
anti ulcer49201 One of various classes of drugs with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate peptic ulcer or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract.CHEBI
EnzymesNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
Flavours
FlavorCitations
sour
  1. Dunkel, M. et al. SuperScent – a database of flavors and scents. Nucleic Acids Research 2008, doi:10.1093/nar/gkn695
odorless
  1. The Good Scents Company (2009). Flavor and fragrance information catalog. <http://www.thegoodscentscompany.com/allprod.html> Accessed 15.10.23.
Files
MSDSshow
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference— Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).
— Shinbo, Y., et al. 'KNApSAcK: a comprehensive species-metabolite relationship database.' Plant Metabolomics. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006. 165-181.