Record Information
Version1.0
Creation date2010-04-08 22:06:07 UTC
Update date2019-11-26 02:59:52 UTC
Primary IDFDB004181
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB NameLithium
DescriptionLithium (Li) is an alkali metal. First described as a mood stabilizer in 1949, it remains an efficacious treatment for bipolar disorders. Recent emerging evidence of its neuroprotective and neurogenic effects alludes to lithium's potential therapeutic use in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. One intriguing clinical application is in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating lithium's abilities to lower tau and beta-amyloid levels in cerebrospinal fluid in Alzheimer's patients. Lithium reduces brain inositol levels by inhibiting the enzyme inositol monophosphatase. This suggests that inositol monophosphatase inhibition is a key mechanism of Li's therapeutic action and that design of new inositol monophosphatase inhibitors may be a practical strategy to create new compounds with Li-like therapeutic effects. Lithium reduces the severity of some behavioral complications of Alzheimer's disease (AD). And there are growing indications that Li may be of benefit to the underlying pathology of AD, as well as an array of other common CNS disorders, including stroke, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Despite these demonstrated and prospective therapeutic benefits, Li's mechanism of action remains elusive, and opinions differ regarding the most relevant molecular targets. Lithium inhibits several enzymes; significant among these are inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), and the proteasome. Lithium has a narrow therapeutic range, and several well characterised adverse effects limit the potential usefulness of higher doses. Acute ingestion in Li-naive patients is generally associated with only short-lived exposure to high concentrations, due to extensive distribution of Li throughout the total body water compartment. Conversely, chronic toxicity and acute-on-therapeutic ingestion are associated with prolonged exposure to higher tissue concentrations and, therefore, greater toxicity. Lithium toxicity may be life threatening, or result in persistent cognitive and neurological impairment. Therefore, enhanced Li clearance has been explored as a means of minimizing exposure to high tissue concentrations. Although haemodialysis is highly effective in removing circulating Li, serum concentrations often rebound so repeated or prolonged treatment may be required. Continuous arteriovenous haemodiafiltration and continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration increase Li clearance, albeit to a lesser extent than haemodialysis, and are more widely accessible. Lithium reduces brain inositol levels by inhibiting IMPase, suggesting that IMPase's inhibition is a key mechanism of Li's therapeutic action and that design of new IMPase inhibitors may be a practical strategy to create new compounds with Li-like therapeutic effects. (PMID: 17688381, 17316163, 8110911, 17288494). Lithium is found in many foods, some of which are endive, yellow zucchini, romaine lettuce, and common bean.
CAS Number7439-93-2
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymSource
3LiChEBI
LiChEBI
LitioChEBI
Normothymin-eKegg
Lithium-7MeSH
Lithium 7MeSH
Apo-lithium carbonatebiospider
Apo-lithium carbonate SRbiospider
Carbolith Cap 150mgbiospider
Carbolith Cap 300mgbiospider
Carbolith Capsules 600mgbiospider
Eskalithbiospider
Eskalith CRbiospider
LIbiospider
Li(+)biospider
Li(+) cationbiospider
Li(+) ionbiospider
Li+biospider
Lithanebiospider
Lithium atombiospider
Lithium benziocumbiospider
Lithium carbonatebiospider
Lithium carbonicumbiospider
Lithium cationbiospider
Lithium citratebiospider
Lithium elementbiospider
Lithium ionbiospider
Lithium, ionbiospider
Lithium, ion (Li1+)biospider
lithium(+1) cationbiospider
lithium(1+)biospider
lithium(1+) ionbiospider
Lithium(I) cationbiospider
Lithobidbiospider
Pal-lithium carbonatebiospider
PHL-lithium carbonatebiospider
Pms-Lithium Carbonate - Cap 150mgbiospider
Pms-Lithium Carbonate - Cap 300mgbiospider
Pms-Lithium Carbonate - Cap 600mgbiospider
Pms-Lithium Citrate Syr 8mmo/5mlbiospider
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Chemical FormulaLi
IUPAC namelithium
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Li
InChI KeyWHXSMMKQMYFTQS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Isomeric SMILES[Li]
Average Molecular Weight6.941
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight7.016004049
Classification
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous alkali metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a alkali metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous alkali metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous alkali metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous alkali metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Ontology
OntologyNo ontology term
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
PropertyValueReference
Physical stateSolid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionNot Available
Melting Point190 oC
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-cbe4de9c65cbd09ee945JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-cbe4de9c65cbd09ee945JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-cbe4de9c65cbd09ee945JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-ae882b48ac0e9bfbedb2JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-ae882b48ac0e9bfbedb2JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-ae882b48ac0e9bfbedb2JSpectraViewer
ChemSpider ID26502
ChEMBL IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC15473
Pubchem Compound ID28486
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI ID30145
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDDB01356
HMDB IDHMDB05949
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDNot Available
EAFUS IDNot Available
Dr. Duke IDLITHIUM
BIGG IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
HET IDLI
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
FoodReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / Bioactivities
DescriptorIDDefinitionReference
anti depressant52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti hyperthyroid52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti manicDUKE
anti premenstrual syndrome52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti psychotic35476 Antipsychotic drugs are agents that control agitated psychotic behaviour, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect.DUKE
anti schizophrenic52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti viral22587 A substance that destroys or inhibits replication of viruses.DUKE
cholinergic38323 Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of acetylcholine, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons.DUKE
deliriantDUKE
natriureticDUKE
nephrotoxic50909 A role played by a chemical compound exihibiting itself through the ability to induce damage to the kidney in animals.DUKE
Enzymes
NameGene NameUniProt ID
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 betaGSK3BP49841
Catenin beta-1CTNNB1P35222
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
FlavoursNot Available
Files
MSDSshow
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference— Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).