Record Information
Creation date2010-04-08 22:06:20 UTC
Update date2020-04-21 18:02:11 UTC
Primary IDFDB004643
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB NameAcetylcholine
DescriptionAcetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine in vertebrates is the major transmitter at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system. Its physiological and pharmacological effects, metabolism, release, and receptors have been well documented in several species. ACh has been considered an important excitatory neurotransmitter in the carotid body (CB). Various nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors are present in both afferent nerve endings and glomus cells. Therefore, ACh can depolarize or hyperpolarize the cell membrane depending on the available receptor type in the vicinity. Binding of ACh to its receptor can create a wide variety of cellular responses including opening cation channels (nicotinic ACh receptor activation), releasing Ca2+ from intracellular storage sites (via muscarinic ACh receptors), and modulating activities of K+ and Ca2+ channels. Interactions between ACh and other neurotransmitters (dopamine, adenosine, nitric oxide) have been known, and they may induce complicated responses. Cholinergic biology in the CB differs among species and even within the same species due to different genetic composition. Development and environment influence cholinergic biology. ; Pharmacological data clearly indicate that both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have a role in the encoding of new memories. Localized lesions and antagonist infusions demonstrate the anatomical locus of these cholinergic effects, and computational modeling links the function of cholinergic modulation to specific cellular effects within these regions. Acetylcholine has been shown to increase the strength of afferent input relative to feedback, to contribute to theta rhythm oscillations, activate intrinsic mechanisms for persistent spiking, and increase the modification of synapses. These effects might enhance different types of encoding in different cortical structures. In particular, the effects in entorhinal and perirhinal cortex and hippocampus might be important for encoding new episodic memories.; The role of ACh in attention has been repeatedly demonstrated in several tasks. Acetylcholine is linked to response accuracy in voluntary and reflexive attention and also to response speed in reflexive attention. It is well known that those with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders tend to be inaccurate and slow to respond. (PMID: 17284361, 17011181, 15556286); Acetylcholine is an ester of acetic acid and choline with chemical formula CH3COOCH2CH2N+(CH3)3. This structure is reflected in the systematic name, 2-acetoxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium.; In the PNS, acetylcholine activates muscles, and is a major neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system.; In the peripheral nervous system, acetylcholine activates muscles, and is a major neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system. When acetylcholine binds to acetylcholine receptors on skeletal muscle fibers, it opens ligand gated sodium channels in the cell membrane. Sodium ions then enter the muscle cell, stimulating muscle contraction. Acetylcholine, while inducing contraction of skeletal muscles, instead inhibits contraction in cardiac muscle fibers. This distinction is attributed to differences in receptor structure between skeletal and cardiac fibers.; The chemical compound acetylcholine (often abbreviated ACh) is a neurotransmitter in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) in many organisms including humans. Acetylcholine is one of many neurotransmitters in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the only neurotransmitter used in the motor division of the somatic nervous system. (Sensory neurons use glutamate and various peptides at their synapses.) Acetylcholine is also the principal neurotransmitter in all autonomic ganglia. Acetylcholine is found in many foods, some of which are yellow bell pepper, coriander, anise, and cardamom.
CAS Number51-84-3
Choline acetateChEBI
Choline acetic acidGenerator
Acetylcholine iodideHMDB
Acetylcholine perchlorateHMDB
Acetylcholine sulfate (1:1)HMDB
Cusi, acetilcolinaHMDB
Iodide, acetylcholineHMDB
Acetilcolina cusiHMDB
Acetylcholine fluorideHMDB
Acetylcholine L tartrateHMDB
Acetylcholine picrateHMDB
Perchlorate, acetylcholineHMDB
Acetylcholine L-tartrateHMDB
Acetylcholine picrate (1:1)HMDB
Hydroxide, acetylcholineHMDB
Acetylcholine bromideHMDB
Acetylcholine chlorideHMDB
Acetylcholine hydroxideHMDB
Bromide, acetylcholineHMDB
Fluoride, acetylcholineHMDB
L-Tartrate, acetylcholineHMDB
Acetyl choline ionHMDB
Acetylcholine cationHMDB
Acetylcholinium: acetyl-cholineHMDB
Choline acetate (ester)HMDB
Bournonville brand OF acetylcholine chlorideHMDB
Iolab brand OF acetylcholine chlorideHMDB
Alcon brand OF acetylcholine chlorideHMDB
Ciba vision brand OF acetylcholine chlorideHMDB
AcetylcholineMeSH, HMDB
60-31-1 (chloride)biospider
66-23-9 (bromide)biospider
927-86-6 (perchlorate)biospider
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.14 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity51.35 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.69 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC7H16NO2
IUPAC name[2-(acetyloxy)ethyl]trimethylazanium
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C7H16NO2/c1-7(9)10-6-5-8(2,3)4/h5-6H2,1-4H3/q+1
Isomeric SMILESCC(=O)OCC[N+](C)(C)C
Average Molecular Weight146.2074
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight146.118103761
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acyl cholines. These are acylated derivatives of choline. Choline or 2-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium is a quaternary ammonium salt with the chemical formula (CH3)3N+(CH2)2OH.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic nitrogen compounds
ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
Sub ClassQuaternary ammonium salts
Direct ParentAcyl cholines
Alternative Parents
  • Acyl choline
  • Tetraalkylammonium salt
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Organic cation
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
OntologyNo ontology term
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physical stateNot Available
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionNot Available
Melting Point148 oC
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSAcetylcholine, non-derivatized, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4r-9100000000-bf8d3f373f038db1a310Spectrum
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000j-9600000000-ec60451904fda7dde556Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000l-9000000000-2ea4c086c3ab458a1d7cSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-98d5a70eed75a0945da4Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-1900000000-2da10e016ac539b6e981Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-7efaaa08a6c43d816358Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-eb7d66198d7674cbbd2aSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-000l-9000000000-41b87d773c58129802e9Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-9e8e66250f2cf34a2046Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-f7fe18f2371596dc7333Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-000j-9800000000-b0f987ebcb0179a2c5abSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-1be58612df9c1eef1282Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0002-1900000000-2da10e016ac539b6e981Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-7efaaa08a6c43d816358Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-eb7d66198d7674cbbd2aSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-000l-9000000000-41b87d773c58129802e9Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-9ac44e29bdfbddf1b90dSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-f7fe18f2371596dc7333Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-000j-9800000000-b0f987ebcb0179a2c5abSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-000j-9400000000-8a3a0b77e93715b85ed4Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumSpectrum
ChemSpider IDNot Available
ChEMBL IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
Pubchem Compound IDNot Available
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDNot Available
EAFUS IDNot Available
BIGG IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
HET IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / Bioactivities
allergenic50904 A chemical compound which causes the onset of an allergic reaction by interacting with any of the molecular pathways involved in an allergy.DUKE
anti amblyopic52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti diuretic52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti ileusDUKE
anti tachycardic38070 A drug used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. Anti-arrhythmia drugs may affect the polarisation-repolarisation phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibres.DUKE
cardiodepressant38070 A drug used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. Anti-arrhythmia drugs may affect the polarisation-repolarisation phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibres.DUKE
miotic51068 Aa agent causing contraction of the pupil of the eye. Because the size of the pupil is under the antagonistic control of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, drugs affecting either system can cause miosis. Drugs that mimic or potentiate the parasympathetic input to the circular constrictor muscle and drugs that inhibit sympathetic input to the radial dilator muscle tend to contract the pupils.DUKE
neurotransmitter25512 An endogenous compound that is used to transmit information across the synapse between a neuron and another cell.DUKE
vasodilator35620 A drug used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.DUKE
hormone24621 Originally referring to an endogenous compound that is formed in specialized organ or group of cells and carried to another organ or group of cells, in the same organism, upon which it has a specific regulatory function, the term is now commonly used to include non-endogenous, semi-synthetic and fully synthetic analogues of such compounds.CHEBI
EnzymesNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
FlavoursNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference— Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).