Record Information
Creation date2010-04-08 22:06:27 UTC
Update date2020-09-17 15:30:55 UTC
Primary IDFDB004905
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB Name(+)-Valine
DescriptionValine, abbreviated as Val or V, one of 20 proteinogenic amino acids, is a non-polar amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH(CH3)2. Valine is an essential amino acid that humans do not synthesize and must acquire from diet, usually from protein sources. Along with leucine and isoleucine, valine is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), an amino acid whose carbon structure is marked by a branch point. These three amino acids are critical to human life and are particularly involved in stress, energy and muscle metabolism. BCAA supplementation as therapy, both oral and intravenous, in human health and disease holds great promise. Despite their structural similarities, the branched amino acids have different metabolic routes, with valine going solely to carbohydrates, leucine solely to fats and isoleucine to both. The different metabolism accounts for different requirements for these essential amino acids in humans: 12 mg/kg, 14 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg of valine, leucine, and isoleucine, respectively. Furthermore, these amino acids have different deficiency symptoms. Valine deficiency is marked by neurological defects in the brain, while isoleucine deficiency is marked by muscle tremors. Many types of inborn errors of BCAA metabolism exist and are marked by various abnormalities. The most common form is the maple syrup urine disease, marked by a sweet urinary odor. Other abnormalities are associated with a wide range of symptoms, such as mental retardation, ataxia, hypoglycemia, spinal muscle atrophy, rash, vomiting and excessive muscle movement. Most forms of BCAA metabolism errors are corrected by dietary restriction of BCAA and at least one form is correctable by supplementation with 10 mg of biotin daily. BCAA are decreased in patients with liver disease, such as hepatitis, hepatic coma, cirrhosis, extrahepatic biliary atresia or portacaval shunt; aromatic amino acids (AAA) tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine, as well as methionine are increased in these conditions. Valine has been established as a useful supplemental therapy for an ailing liver. All the BCAA probably compete with AAA for absorption into the brain. Supplemental BCAA with vitamin B6 and zinc help normalize the BCAA:AAA ratio. Hypervalinemia is another example of an inborn error of metabolism involving valine, not the other BCAA. It is caused by a deficiency in the valine transaminase gene (PMID: 6067402).
CAS Number72-18-4
(2S)-2-Amino-3-methylbutanoic acidChEBI
2-Amino-3-methylbutyric acidChEBI
L-(+)-alpha-Aminoisovaleric acidChEBI
L-alpha-Amino-beta-methylbutyric acidChEBI
L-(+)-a-Aminoisovaleric acidGenerator
L-(+)-Α-aminoisovaleric acidGenerator
L-a-Amino-b-methylbutyric acidGenerator
L-Α-amino-β-methylbutyric acidGenerator
(S)-2-Amino-3-methyl-butanoic acidHMDB
(S)-2-Amino-3-methylbutanoic acidHMDB
(S)-2-Amino-3-methylbutyric acidHMDB
(S)-a-Amino-b-methylbutyric acidHMDB
(S)-alpha-Amino-beta-methylbutyric acidHMDB
2-Amino-3-methylbutanoic acidHMDB
L ValineHMDB
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility214 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.72ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity29.49 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability12.19 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC5H11NO2
IUPAC name(2S)-2-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C5H11NO2/c1-3(2)4(6)5(7)8/h3-4H,6H2,1-2H3,(H,7,8)/t4-/m0/s1
Isomeric SMILESCC(C)[C@H](N)C(O)=O
Average Molecular Weight117.1463
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight117.078978601
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as valine and derivatives. Valine and derivatives are compounds containing valine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of valine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentValine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Valine or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Branched fatty acid
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Amino acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physiological effect

Health effect:


Route of exposure:


Biological location:


Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physical stateNot Available
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionNot Available
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
EI-MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-05fr-9000000000-5d10fb7acd70b2f43368Spectrum
GC-MS(+)-Valine, 2 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0006-0910000000-23bfcf2795f71f458bdaSpectrum
GC-MS(+)-Valine, 2 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0006-0920000000-7892bb9d4d9afcc23410Spectrum
GC-MS(+)-Valine, 2 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0006-0910000000-f2491152816b9c5dc7edSpectrum
GC-MS(+)-Valine, 1 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0znj-1900000000-7c976d7c11a402db399fSpectrum
GC-MS(+)-Valine, 2 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00dl-8910000000-78e8ee971ad7298c23cdSpectrum
GC-MS(+)-Valine, 1 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00di-9200000000-805e6724e5181af78c81Spectrum
GC-MS(+)-Valine, 2 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0006-0910000000-a212771a5ea868139d5aSpectrum
GC-MS(+)-Valine, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-059t-0900000000-7b8e4e98ac9158bf26d9Spectrum
GC-MS(+)-Valine, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0006-0910000000-9079324093be9a14d47aSpectrum
GC-MS(+)-Valine, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0006-0910000000-23bfcf2795f71f458bdaSpectrum
GC-MS(+)-Valine, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0006-0920000000-7892bb9d4d9afcc23410Spectrum
GC-MS(+)-Valine, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0006-0910000000-f2491152816b9c5dc7edSpectrum
GC-MS(+)-Valine, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0znj-1900000000-7c976d7c11a402db399fSpectrum
GC-MS(+)-Valine, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-000i-2920000000-1628d46d5520c5f20de8Spectrum
GC-MS(+)-Valine, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00dl-8910000000-78e8ee971ad7298c23cdSpectrum
GC-MS(+)-Valine, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00di-9200000000-805e6724e5181af78c81Spectrum
GC-MS(+)-Valine, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0006-0910000000-a212771a5ea868139d5aSpectrum
Predicted GC-MS(+)-Valine, non-derivatized, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dl-9000000000-602d1e01bc7567493e4cSpectrum
Predicted GC-MS(+)-Valine, 1 TMS, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dl-9500000000-a758682a7aafbd0d553eSpectrum
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-67498a3295a1fe788c4bSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-9000000000-fb359f44fcf1b83ee14dSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-9000000000-8e5f620c04615765a062Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014r-0900000000-619d80cc41221405e0bdSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-17ab53cec2e6b727c3e9Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-0dfbcc85d6423af91edaSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014l-4900000000-c50d79ba3a5013bcf29fSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0uxr-0900000000-67a7784963ec75cecaa0Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-4569516f23d8a712b434Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-d928cac1226f19b8edc3Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-34059351f2cbd94a8accSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-a36d8d68a6705027415fSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-1a5d8f4c1b293de18fedSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-b410df2c18dfc8ab7165Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0gi0-6900000000-c87ff036e3a5d15b7670Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-561b3b28fa82e0b10658Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-05fr-9000000000-11e7c0a3d5cf8e4dedfeSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-6a6f8cd9629b0f09469cSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-4518f691bbda5739c0f1Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-a931cfc8207edac33775Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-430332b13b8c6368136bSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-ffb286a8ae38a0a3e6d2Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00xr-9500000000-bb54662a5fd1dd142d90Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-1f7d9c10db4226a383c1Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-05fu-9000000000-f6d7e45bb3f3436e5eb7Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumSpectrum
ChemSpider IDNot Available
ChEMBL IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
Pubchem Compound IDNot Available
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDNot Available
EAFUS IDNot Available
Dr. Duke ID(+)-VALINE
BIGG IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
HET IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / BioactivitiesNot Available
EnzymesNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
FlavoursNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference— Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).