Record Information
Version1.0
Creation date2010-04-08 22:07:09 UTC
Update date2020-09-17 15:42:24 UTC
Primary IDFDB006453
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • FDB030767
Chemical Information
FooDB NameGalactitol
DescriptionGalactitol or dulcitol is a sugar alcohol that is a metabolic breakdown product of galactose. Galactitol is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). Galactose is derived from lactose in food (such as dairy products). When lactose is broken down by the enzyme lactase it produces glucose and galactose. It is this galactose that is broken down to galactitol via a reaction catalyzed by aldose reductase. Galactitol has a slightly sweet taste. When present in sufficiently high levels, galactitol can act as a metabotoxin, a neurotoxin, and a hepatotoxin. A neurotoxin is a compound that disrupts or attacks neural cells and neural tissue. A hepatotoxin as a compound that disrupts or attacks liver tissue or liver cells. A metabotoxin is an endogenously produced metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. Chronically high levels of galactitol are associated with at least two inborn errors of metabolism, including galactosemia and galactosemia type II. Galactosemia is a rare genetic metabolic disorder that affects an individual's ability to metabolize the sugar galactose properly. Excess lactose consumption in individuals with galactose intolerance or galactosemia activates aldose reductase to produce galactitol, thus depleting NADPH and leading to lowered glutathione reductase activity. As a result, hydrogen peroxide or other free radicals accumulate causing serious oxidative damage to various cells and tissues. In individuals with galactosemia, the enzymes needed for the further metabolism of galactose (galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase) are severely diminished or missing entirely, leading to toxic levels of galactose 1-phosphate, galactitol, and galactonate. High levels of galactitol in infants are specifically associated with hepatomegaly (an enlarged liver), cirrhosis, renal failure, cataracts, vomiting, seizure, hypoglycemia, lethargy, brain damage, and ovarian failure. Outside of the human body, Galactitol has been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as common buckwheats, winter squash, calabash, black walnuts, and peanuts. This could make galactitol a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods.
CAS Number608-66-2
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymSource
(2R,3S,4R,5S)-Hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexolChEBI
D-DulcitolChEBI
D-GalactitolChEBI
DulcitolChEBI
DulcoseChEBI
EuonymitChEBI
L-GalactitolChEBI
MelampyrinChEBI
MelampyritChEBI
Ambap5938HMDB
DulciteHMDB
HexitolHMDB
MelampyriteHMDB
MelampyrumHMDB
Meso-galactitolHMDB
galacto-Hexitoldb_source
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility229 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.7ALOGPS
logP-3.7ChemAxon
logS0.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.59ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area121.38 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity38.4 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability17.25 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC6H14O6
IUPAC name(2R,3S,4R,5S)-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C6H14O6/c7-1-3(9)5(11)6(12)4(10)2-8/h3-12H,1-2H2/t3-,4+,5+,6-
InChI KeyFBPFZTCFMRRESA-GUCUJZIJSA-N
Isomeric SMILESOC[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)CO
Average Molecular Weight182.1718
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight182.07903818
Classification
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sugar alcohols. These are hydrogenated forms of carbohydrate in which the carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone, reducing sugar) has been reduced to a primary or secondary hydroxyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentSugar alcohols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Sugar alcohol
  • Monosaccharide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Indirect biological role:

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
PropertyValueReference
Physical stateSolid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionNot Available
Melting Point189.5 oC
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water Solubility31 mg/mL at 15 oCYALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
Experimental logP-3.10HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
EI-MS/GC-MS
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGalactitol, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-014j-0941000000-61141f9f2ddc66e0b016Spectrum
GC-MSGalactitol, 6 TMS, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0gb9-1983000000-0a0dafcfea843fbb3c72Spectrum
GC-MSGalactitol, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-014j-0941000000-61141f9f2ddc66e0b016Spectrum
GC-MSGalactitol, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0gb9-1983000000-0a0dafcfea843fbb3c72Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSGalactitol, non-derivatized, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-03k9-9400000000-7a0f08ea65cbca1920f5Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSGalactitol, 6 TMS, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a6s-7141193000-dcd9245e12314ee0ced4Spectrum
MS/MS
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-005a-5900000000-35da0de23de5b9170aedSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-9000000000-552b84764ceb9b497a7eSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-052f-9000000000-dfb4eef021d94d514588Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 10V, positivesplash10-0cdi-9200000000-864013c7cfca78751f1aSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 40V, positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-d8bbc3d4a1c6c5aee49dSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 20V, positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-d919d47fb365625ddad8Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 4V, negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-028ff289dc870279e218Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 8V, negativesplash10-001i-1900000000-a99ee988b2a1bbab9137Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 12V, negativesplash10-0uyr-6900000000-04315425478b660c8947Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 16V, negativesplash10-0kg9-9400000000-54350b0516f39f8c9b50Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QqQ 20V, negativesplash10-0abi-9100000000-b4cf2b00830b765d5dcbSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - n/a 12V, negativesplash10-0089-9000000000-20463a683f8ab7aa9e4dSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - n/a 12V, negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-5c4795e954d5c3e9b74eSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - n/a 12V, negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-43b7e571c1185de1e99bSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - n/a 12V, negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-160eaf7ef39d08853738Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - n/a 12V, negativesplash10-0udi-3900000000-3114e2bfe0cdbc68be19Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - n/a 12V, negativesplash10-000j-9000000000-635a869063bea88c0091Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - n/a 12V, negativesplash10-0uk9-3900000000-2ecc694b3a9844ec3ee5Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Orbitrap 3V, negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-61d17fd37e0e3ac16e37Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-1900000000-8fd623cab2d92c8fe6bcSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-9100000000-6b1add40ffbd73109f44Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03dl-9000000000-91a1337ee99558df9b9bSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00su-8900000000-bab2cfe2d89285b51d20Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-06y6-9100000000-d4d223d12ef78c8ca224Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0btc-9000000000-9c0d6465be9cdfd04388Spectrum
NMR
TypeDescriptionView
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumSpectrum
ChemSpider ID11357
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1773904
KEGG Compound IDC01697
Pubchem Compound ID11850
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB00107
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDBVW44-V:BVW44-V
EAFUS IDNot Available
Dr. Duke IDGALACTITOL
BIGG ID38183
KNApSAcK IDC00001160
HET IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDGalactitol
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
FoodReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / BioactivitiesNot Available
EnzymesNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Galactose MetabolismSMP00043 map00052
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
FlavoursNot Available
Files
MSDSNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference— Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).