Record Information
Version1.0
Creation date2010-04-08 22:08:22 UTC
Update date2020-09-17 15:38:12 UTC
Primary IDFDB009020
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • FDB030892
Chemical Information
FooDB NameBetaine
DescriptionBetaine, also known as Bet or trimethylglycine, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon). Betaine is a moderately acidic compound (based on its pKa). Betaine exists in all eukaryotes, ranging from yeast to humans. In humans, betaine is involved in betaine metabolism. Betaine is a bland tasting compound. Outside of the human body, Betaine is found, on average, in the highest concentration within a few different foods, such as swamp cabbages, quinoa, and lambsquarters and in a lower concentration in common buckwheats, burdocks, and yellow zucchinis. Betaine has also been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as lemon verbena, wasabis, endives, chickpea, and pomegranates. This could make betaine a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. Intracellular accumulation of betaines permits water retention in cells, thus protecting from the effects of dehydration (Wikipedia). Betaine comes from either the diet or by the oxidation of choline. Betaine, with regard to humans, has been found to be associated with several diseases such as chronic renal failure, colorectal cancer, and alzheimer's disease; betaine has also been linked to several inborn metabolic disorders including argininosuccinic aciduria and propionic acidemia. In an acute toxicology study in rats, death frequently occurred at doses equal to or greater than 10,000 mg/kg. Betaine has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on NO release in activated microglial cells and may be an effective therapeutic component to control neurological disorders (PMID: 22801281). Betaine insufficiency is associated with metabolic syndrome, lipid disorders, and diabetes, and may have a role in vascular and other diseases (PMID: 20346934). Many reports have shown that betaine's therapeutic effectiveness is limited, and does not lower tHcy levels or prevent clinical symptoms .
CAS Number107-43-7
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymSource
(Trimethylammoniumyl)acetateChEBI
1-Carboxy-N,N,N-trimethylmethanaminium inner saltChEBI
2-N,N,N-Trimethylammonio acetateChEBI
AbromineChEBI
AcidolChEBI
BetChEBI
N,N,N-TrimethylammonioacetateChEBI
N,N,N-TrimethylglycineChEBI
TrimethylaminoacetateChEBI
TrimethylammonioacetateChEBI
TrimethylglycineChEBI
TrimethylglycocollChEBI
Glycine betaineKegg
CystadaneKegg
(Trimethylammoniumyl)acetic acidGenerator
2-N,N,N-Trimethylammonio acetic acidGenerator
N,N,N-Trimethylammonioacetic acidGenerator
Trimethylaminoacetic acidGenerator
Trimethylammonioacetic acidGenerator
(Carboxymethyl)trimethylammonium hydroxide inner saltHMDB
(Trimethylammonio)acetateHMDB
1-Carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-methanaminiumHMDB
1-Carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-methanaminium hydroxideHMDB
a-EarleineHMDB
alpha-EarleineHMDB
AminocoatHMDB
BetafinHMDB
Betafin BCRHMDB
Betafin BPHMDB
Ektasolve eeHMDB
FinnStimHMDB
Glycocoll betaineHMDB
GlycylbetaineHMDB
GreenstimHMDB
Loramine amb 13HMDB
Loramine amb-13HMDB
LycineHMDB
OxyneurineHMDB
Rubrine CHMDB
Trimethylbetaine glycineHMDB
Acidin pepsinHMDB
Beaufour brand OF betaine citrateHMDB
Byk brand OF betaine phosphateHMDB
Fournier brand OF betaine ascorbate and hydrateHMDB
Hydrochloride, betaineHMDB
Logeais brand OF betaine cyclobutyrateHMDB
NovobetaineHMDB
Betaine hydrochlorideHMDB
Betaine orphan brandHMDB
Boizot brand OF betaine aspartateHMDB
C.B.B.HMDB
Citrate de bétaïne upsaHMDB
Scorbo-bétaïneHMDB
Stea-16HMDB
Stea16HMDB
Acidin-pepsinHMDB
Citrate de bétaïne beaufourHMDB
Orphan brand OF betaineHMDB
Scorbo bétaïneHMDB
AcidinPepsinHMDB
Betaine, glycineHMDB
HepastylHMDB
ScorbobétaïneHMDB
UPSA brand OF betaine citrateHMDB
Stea 16HMDB
BetaineChEBI
(carboxymethyl)trimethylammonium hydroxide inner saltbiospider
(carboxymethyl)trimethylammonium hydroxide, inner saltbiospider
(carboxymethyl)trimethylammonium inner saltbiospider
(trimethyl-α-earleinebiospider
(trimethylammonio)acetatebiospider
(trimethylammoniumyl)acetatebiospider
α-earleinebiospider
βinebiospider
βine (van)biospider
1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-Methanaminiumbiospider
1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-Methanaminium hydroxidebiospider
2-(Trimethylammonio)ethanoic acid, hydroxide, inner saltbiospider
A-earleinebiospider
Alpha-earleinebiospider
Aquadew AN 100biospider
Betaine (8CI)biospider
Betaine, anhydrousbiospider
Betainum muriaticumbiospider
Cystadane (TN)biospider
Finnstimbiospider
Glycine βinebiospider
Glycine, trimethylβinebiospider
Glycine, trimethylbetainebiospider
Glycocoll βinebiospider
GLYCYLβinebiospider
Glykokollbetainbiospider
Jortainebiospider
Loramine AMB-13biospider
Methanaminium, 1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, hydroxidebiospider
Methanaminium, 1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, inner saltbiospider
Methanaminium, 1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, inner salt (9CI)biospider
Methanaminium, carboxy-n,n,n-trimethyl-, inner saltbiospider
N,n,n-trimethylammonioacetatebiospider
N,n,n-trimethylglycinebiospider
Rubrine cbiospider
Trimethylglycocoll anhydridebiospider
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.86 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.7ALOGPS
logP-4.5ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.26ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.13 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity52.82 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability12.11 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC5H11NO2
IUPAC name2-(trimethylazaniumyl)acetate
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C5H11NO2/c1-6(2,3)4-5(7)8/h4H2,1-3H3
InChI KeyKWIUHFFTVRNATP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Isomeric SMILESC[N+](C)(C)CC([O-])=O
Average Molecular Weight117.1463
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight117.078978601
Classification
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentAlpha amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Tetraalkylammonium salt
  • Carboxylic acid salt
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
PropertyValueReference
Physical stateSolid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionNot Available
Melting Point293 oC ( Soicke, H., Fitoterapia 1988, V59(1), P73-5)
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water Solubility611 mg/mL at 19 oCYALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKa2.38
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05fu-9200000000-96ab6e2136fe7e03b63aJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-0900000000-feacc600820771d2a77bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-9000000000-e5bbda9fb66994576062JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-9000000000-c382759eab7d0a87ac27JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-a7beb42e6944181ae5d9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-1900000000-77fbc4a2b76030d53644JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9100000000-2941e4997f202293bf71JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-9b9e3cecb77ed4b40b7cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-27bbb5f9642306216a0bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-014i-1900000000-82a41cbb0f697910b577JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-0aor-9500000000-9a0f1853188052d798c6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-066r-5900000000-a6291f86046f32ad3c81JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0a4i-9200000000-709208d6782f1b588501JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-a7beb42e6944181ae5d9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-014i-1900000000-77fbc4a2b76030d53644JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0a4i-9100000000-2941e4997f202293bf71JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-a2560fc2add75f79eadbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-27bbb5f9642306216a0bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-b45353825d98488d752aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positivesplash10-0aor-9500000000-3fdd9d17a169db5c58ddJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-493791dfdd428fc3bd6bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-3900000000-b2afc99d27edd18d7f29JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0lk9-9500000000-5c3747866d41ab8df618JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-5cf478650fcc3a71b790JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-86832153dde465116f78JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-066r-9600000000-2e90f09f2c87dfc45640JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4l-9000000000-f32989f795eeceb8b692JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
ChemSpider ID242
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1182
KEGG Compound IDC00719
Pubchem Compound ID247
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17750
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB00043
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDNot Available
EAFUS ID336
Dr. Duke IDLYCINE|BETAINE|GLYCINE-BETAINE
BIGG ID35786
KNApSAcK IDC00007291
HET IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDrw1223311
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDBetaine
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
FoodReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / Bioactivities
DescriptorIDDefinitionReference
abortifacient50691 A chemical substance that interrupts pregnancy after implantation.DUKE
anti gastriticDUKE
anti homocystinuricDUKE
anti myoatrophicDUKE
bruchiphobeDUKE
cardioprotective38070 A drug used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. Anti-arrhythmia drugs may affect the polarisation-repolarisation phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibres.DUKE
diuretic35498 An agent that promotes the excretion of urine through its effects on kidney function.DUKE
emmenagogueDUKE
ethanolyticDUKE
expectorant52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
hepatoprotective62868 Any compound that is able to prevent damage to the liver.DUKE
lipotropicDUKE
mucogenicDUKE
pesticide25944 Strictly, a substance intended to kill pests. In common usage, any substance used for controlling, preventing, or destroying animal, microbiological or plant pests.DUKE
EnzymesNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Betaine MetabolismSMP00123 map00260
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004 map00260
Methionine MetabolismSMP00033 map00270
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
Flavours
FlavorCitations
bland
  1. The Good Scents Company (2009). Flavor and fragrance information catalog. <http://www.thegoodscentscompany.com/allprod.html> Accessed 15.10.23.
Files
MSDSshow
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference— U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2008. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page.
— Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).