Record Information
Version1.0
Creation date2010-04-08 22:10:13 UTC
Update date2020-09-17 15:30:51 UTC
Primary IDFDB012535
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • FDB030962
Chemical Information
FooDB NameL-Glutamic acid
DescriptionL-glutamic acid (abbreviated Glu or E), also referred to as glutamate (the anion), is a non-essential amino acid, one of the 20 amino acids used in the biosynthesis of proteins. L-glutamic acid exists in all living species, from bacteria to humans. In humans, dietary proteins are broken down by digestion into amino acids, which serves as metabolic fuel or other functional roles in the body. Glutamate is a component amino acid in many protein rich foods including the gluten protein in flour and is found as a free acid in cheeses and soya sauce. It is used as a flavor enhancer as a sodium salt known as monosodium glutamate. Glutamate is a key molecule in cellular metabolism. Glutamate is the most abundant fast excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system. At chemical synapses, glutamate is stored in vesicles. Nerve impulses trigger release of glutamate from the pre-synaptic cell. In the opposing post-synaptic cell, glutamate receptors, such as the N-methyl-d-aspartate acid (NMDA) receptor, bind glutamate and are activated. Because of its role in synaptic plasticity, it is believed that glutamic acid is involved in cognitive functions like learning and memory in the brain. Glutamate transporters are found in neuronal and glial membranes. They rapidly remove glutamate from the extracellular space. In brain injury or disease, glutamate can accumulate outside cells, causing glutamate excitotoxicity. Excitotoxicity occurs when neurons are exposed to high levels of glutamate or other neurotransmitters, causing persistent activation of the and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors and voltage-gated calcium channels. This results in a lethal influx of extracellular calcium leading to neuronal damage and eventual cell death. Cell death arises from damage to mitochondria by the excessively high intracellular calcium, which open mitochondrial pores, causing mitochondria to swell. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may also be released by mitochondria into the intracellular space. Excess glutamate and calcium trigger apoptosis by further activating transcription factors for pro-apoptotic genes, or downregulating transcription factors for anti-apoptotic genes. Glutamate excitotoxicity causes other health consequences. In ischemic stroke and brain trauma, the severely reduced blood supply leads to flooding of glutamate and aspartate into the extra-neuronal space ( PMID: 16314180). Glutamate excitotoxicity is associated with diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, lathyrism, and Alzheimer's disease (PMID: 20229265) and in epileptic seizures. Microinjection of glutamic acid into neurons produces spontaneous depolarization around one second apart which is like a paroxysmal depolarizing shift seen in epileptic attacks. This change in the resting membrane potential at seizure foci could cause spontaneous opening of voltage activated calcium channels, leading to glutamic acid release and further depolarization. Moreover, glutamic acid is associated with N-acetylglutamate synthetase deficiency, which is an inborn error of metabolism.
CAS Number56-86-0
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymSource
(S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acidChEBI
(S)-Glutamic acidChEBI
Acide glutamiqueChEBI
Acido glutamicoChEBI
Acidum glutamicumChEBI
EChEBI
GluChEBI
GlutamateChEBI
GLUTAMIC ACIDChEBI
L-GluChEBI
L-Glutaminic acidChEBI
L-GlutaminsaeureChEBI
(S)-2-AminopentanedioateGenerator
(S)-GlutamateGenerator
L-GlutaminateGenerator
L-GlutamateGenerator
(2S)-2-AminopentanedioateHMDB
(2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acidHMDB
(S)-(+)-GlutamateHMDB
(S)-(+)-Glutamic acidHMDB
1-Amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylateHMDB
1-Amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylic acidHMDB
1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylateHMDB
1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylic acidHMDB
2-AminoglutarateHMDB
2-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
2-AminopentanedioateHMDB
2-Aminopentanedioic acidHMDB
a-AminoglutarateHMDB
a-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
a-GlutamateHMDB
a-Glutamic acidHMDB
AciglutHMDB
alpha-AminoglutarateHMDB
alpha-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
alpha-GlutamateHMDB
alpha-Glutamic acidHMDB
AminoglutarateHMDB
Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
GltHMDB
GlusateHMDB
GlutHMDB
GlutacidHMDB
GlutamicolHMDB
GlutamidexHMDB
GlutaminateHMDB
Glutaminic acidHMDB
GlutaminolHMDB
GlutatonHMDB
L-(+)-GlutamateHMDB
L-(+)-Glutamic acidHMDB
L-a-AminoglutarateHMDB
L-a-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
L-alpha-AminoglutarateHMDB
L-alpha-Aminoglutaric acidHMDB
D GlutamateHMDB
Glutamate, potassiumHMDB
Glutamic acid, (D)-isomerHMDB
L Glutamic acidHMDB
D-GlutamateHMDB
L GlutamateHMDB
Aluminum L glutamateHMDB
Aluminum L-glutamateHMDB
L-Glutamate, aluminumHMDB
Potassium glutamateHMDB
2-Acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucoseHMDB
D-GlcNAcHMDB
N-Acetyl-D-glucosamineHMDB
N-AcetylchitosamineHMDB
N Acetyl D glucosamineHMDB
2 Acetamido 2 deoxy D glucoseHMDB
2 Acetamido 2 deoxyglucoseHMDB
2-Acetamido-2-deoxyglucoseHMDB
AcetylglucosamineHMDB
3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oylglycineHMDB
N-[(3alpha,5beta,7alpha,12alpha)-3,7,12-Trihydroxy-24-oxocholan-24-yl]glycineHMDB
N-CholoylglycineHMDB
3a,7a,12a-Trihydroxy-5b-cholan-24-oylglycineHMDB
3Α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oylglycineHMDB
N-[(3a,5b,7a,12a)-3,7,12-Trihydroxy-24-oxocholan-24-yl]glycineHMDB
N-[(3Α,5β,7α,12α)-3,7,12-trihydroxy-24-oxocholan-24-yl]glycineHMDB
GlycocholateHMDB
Glycine cholateHMDB
Glycocholic acid, sodium saltHMDB
CholylglycineHMDB
Glycocholate sodiumHMDB
3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholanic acid-24-glycineHMDB
3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-N-(carboxymethyl)-5beta-cholan-24-amideHMDB
3Α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholanic acid-24-glycineHMDB
3Α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-N-(carboxymethyl)-5β-cholan-24-amideHMDB
Glycoreductodehydrocholic acidHMDB
GlycylcholateHMDB
Glycylcholic acidHMDB
N-(Carboxymethyl)-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-amideHMDB
N-(Carboxymethyl)-3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-amideHMDB
N-Choloyl-glycineHMDB
3-Hydroxy-1,3,5(10)-estratrien-17-oneHMDB
Follicular hormoneHMDB
FolliculinHMDB
OestroneHMDB
(+)-EstroneHMDB
1,3,5(10)-Estratrien-3-ol-17-oneHMDB
3-Hydroxy-17-keto-estra-1,3,5-trieneHMDB
3-Hydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-oneHMDB
3-Hydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-triene-17-oneHMDB
3-Hydroxyoestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-oneHMDB
D1,3,5(10)-Estratrien-3-ol-17-oneHMDB
Estrone, (+-)-isomerHMDB
Hyrex brand OF estroneHMDB
Estrone, (9 beta)-isomerHMDB
EstrovarinHMDB
KestroneHMDB
WehgenHMDB
Estrone, (8 alpha)-isomerHMDB
Hauck brand OF estroneHMDB
UnigenHMDB
Vortech brand OF estroneHMDB
alpha,beta-Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
D-GroAHMDB
R-Glyceric acidHMDB
GlycerateHMDB
(R)-GlycerateHMDB
a,b-HydroxypropionateHMDB
a,b-Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
alpha,beta-HydroxypropionateHMDB
Α,β-hydroxypropionateHMDB
Α,β-hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
R-GlycerateHMDB
(R)-Glyceric acidHMDB
D-GlycerateHMDB
D-Glyceric acidHMDB
(2R)-2,3-Dihydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
(R)-2,3-Dihydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
D-2,3-Dihydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
1-Amino-2-hydroxyethaneHMDB
2-Amino-1-ethanolHMDB
2-Amino-ethanolHMDB
2-Aminoethan-1-olHMDB
2-Aminoethyl alcoholHMDB
2-HydroxyethylamineHMDB
AethanolaminHMDB
AminoethanolHMDB
beta-AminoethanolHMDB
beta-Aminoethyl alcoholHMDB
beta-EthanolamineHMDB
beta-HydroxyethylamineHMDB
ColamineHMDB
ETAHMDB
GlycinolHMDB
HeaHMDB
MEAHMDB
MONOETHANOLAMINEHMDB
b-AminoethanolHMDB
Β-aminoethanolHMDB
b-Aminoethyl alcoholHMDB
Β-aminoethyl alcoholHMDB
b-EthanolamineHMDB
Β-ethanolamineHMDB
b-HydroxyethylamineHMDB
Β-hydroxyethylamineHMDB
2-AminoethanolHMDB
2-EthanolamineHMDB
2-HydroxyethanamineHMDB
Envision conditioner PDD 9020HMDB
EthylolamineHMDB
H-GlycinolHMDB
MonoaethanolaminHMDB
OlamineHMDB
2 AminoethanolHMDB
(3R,4S,5R)-5-[(1R)-1-Carboxy-2,2-difluoro-1-(phosphonooxy)ethoxy]-4-hydroxy-3-(phosphonooxy)cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxylateHMDB
(1S)-2-[(3-O-b-D-Glucopyranosyl-b-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-1-{[(9E)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]methyl}ethyl (10E)-nonadec-10-enoateHMDB
(1S)-2-[(3-O-b-D-Glucopyranosyl-b-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-1-{[(9E)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]methyl}ethyl (10E)-nonadec-10-enoic acidHMDB
(1S)-2-[(3-O-beta-D-Glucopyranosyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-1-{[(9E)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]methyl}ethyl (10E)-nonadec-10-enoic acidHMDB
(1S)-2-[(3-O-Β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-1-{[(9E)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]methyl}ethyl (10E)-nonadec-10-enoateHMDB
(1S)-2-[(3-O-Β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy]-1-{[(9E)-octadec-9-enoyloxy]methyl}ethyl (10E)-nonadec-10-enoic acidHMDB
α-aminoglutaric acid, (S)-biospider
α-glutamic acid, (S)-biospider
2-Aminoglutaric acid, (S)-biospider
a-aminoglutaric acid, (S)-biospider
a-glutamic acid, (S)-biospider
Alpha-aminoglutarate, (S)-biospider
Alpha-aminoglutaric acid, (S)-biospider
Alpha-glutamate, (S)-biospider
Alpha-glutamic acid, (S)-biospider
Glutamic acid; L-formdb_source
L (+)-glutamic acid, alpha-formbiospider
L-glutamic acidmanual
S-1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylatebiospider
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Chemical FormulaC5H9NO4
IUPAC name
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C5H9NO4/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
InChI KeyWHUUTDBJXJRKMK-VKHMYHEASA-N
Isomeric SMILESN[C@@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
Average Molecular Weight147.1293
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight147.053157781
Classification
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glutamic acid and derivatives. Glutamic acid and derivatives are compounds containing glutamic acid or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of glutamic acid at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentGlutamic acid and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glutamic acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxide
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
PropertyValueReference
Physical stateSolid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionC 40.82%; H 6.17%; N 9.52%; O 43.50%DFC
Melting PointMp 224-225 (211-213°, 247-249°)° dec.DFC
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water Solubility8.57 mg/mL at 25 oCBULL,HB et al. (1978)
Experimental logP-3.69HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Experimental pKapKa3 9.6 (25°,NH2)DFC
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical Rotation[a]25D +46.8 (c, 2 in 5M HCl)DFC
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
EI-MS/GC-MSNot Available
MS/MSNot Available
NMRNot Available
ChemSpider ID30572
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL575060
KEGG Compound IDC00025
Pubchem Compound ID33032
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16015
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDDB00142
HMDB IDHMDB00148
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDHHT64-G:HHT63-F
EAFUS ID1507
Dr. Duke IDGLUTAMINIC-ACID|L-GLUTAMIC-ACID|GLUTAMIC-ACID|GLUTAMIC-ACID(FREE)
BIGG ID33561
KNApSAcK IDC00001358
HET IDGGL
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDrw1025121
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDGlutamic_acid
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
FoodReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / Bioactivities
DescriptorIDDefinitionReference
anti alkaliDUKE
anti epileptic52217 Any substance introduced into a living organism with therapeutic or diagnostic purpose.DUKE
anti hyperammonemicDUKE
anti lithicDUKE
anti prostatiticDUKE
anti retardationDUKE
anxiolytic35474 Anxiolytic drugs are agents that alleviate anxiety, tension, and anxiety disorders, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions.DUKE
neurotoxic50910 A poison that interferes with the functions of the nervous system.DUKE
neurotransmitter25512 An endogenous compound that is used to transmit information across the synapse between a neuron and another cell.CHEBI
Enzymes
NameGene NameUniProt ID
Tyrosine aminotransferaseTATP17735
Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmicGOT1P17174
Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrialGOT2P00505
Aminoadipate-semialdehyde synthaseAASSA4D0W4
Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolicBCAT1P54687
Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, mitochondrialBCAT2O15382
Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrialAGXT2Q9BYV1
Glutathione synthetaseGSSP48637
Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 3CCBL2Q6YP21
Ornithine aminotransferase, mitochondrialOATP04181
4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrialABATP80404
Alanine aminotransferase 1GPTP24298
Alanine aminotransferase 2GPT2Q8TD30
Glutamate--cysteine ligase catalytic subunitGCLCP48506
Bifunctional glutamate/proline--tRNA ligaseEPRSP07814
Phosphoserine aminotransferasePSAT1Q9Y617
Asparagine synthetase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]ASNSP08243
Putative aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic 2GOT1L1Q8NHS2
Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 1GGT1P19440
Gamma-glutamyltransferase 7GGT7Q9UJ14
Gamma-glutamyltransferase 6GGT6Q6P531
Gamma-glutamyltransferase 5GGT5P36269
Glutamate decarboxylase 2GAD2Q05329
Glutamate decarboxylase 1GAD1Q99259
Arginine decarboxylaseADCQ96A70
Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrialAADATQ8N5Z0
Kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 1CCBL1Q16773
Glutamyl aminopeptidaseENPEPQ07075
Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthaseALDH18A1P54886
Glutamine synthetaseGLULP15104
Glutaminase liver isoform, mitochondrialGLS2Q9UI32
Glutaminase kidney isoform, mitochondrialGLSO94925
Formimidoyltransferase-cyclodeaminaseFTCDO95954
CTP synthase 2CTPS2Q9NRF8
Probable glutamate--tRNA ligase, mitochondrialEARS2Q5JPH6
Glutamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [isomerizing] 2GFPT2O94808
Glutamine--fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase [isomerizing] 1GFPT1Q06210
Phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthasePFASO15067
Glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase subunit B, mitochondrialPET112O75879
Glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase subunit A, mitochondrialQRSL1Q9H0R6
Glutamate--cysteine ligase regulatory subunitGCLMP48507
N-acetylglutamate synthase, mitochondrialNAGSQ8N159
Folylpolyglutamate synthase, mitochondrialFPGSQ05932
5-oxoprolinaseOPLAHO14841
Glutamate receptor, ionotropic kainate 1GRIK1P39086
Glutamate receptor, ionotropic kainate 3GRIK3Q13003
Glutamate receptor 1GRIA1P42261
Mitochondrial glutamate carrier 2SLC25A18Q9H1K4
LengsinLGSNQ5TDP6
Mitochondrial glutamate carrier 1SLC25A22Q9H936
Aspartate aminotransferaseGIG18Q2TU84
Aspartyl aminopeptidaseDNPEPQ9ULA0
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Alanine MetabolismSMP00055 map00250
Amino Sugar MetabolismSMP00045 map00520
Ammonia RecyclingSMP00009 map00910
Arginine and Proline MetabolismSMP00020 map00330
Cysteine MetabolismSMP00013 map00270
Folate MetabolismSMP00053 map00670
Glucose-Alanine CycleSMP00127 Not Available
Glutamate MetabolismSMP00072 map00250
Glutathione MetabolismSMP00015 map00480
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004 map00260
Histidine MetabolismSMP00044 map00340
Malate-Aspartate ShuttleSMP00129 Not Available
Transcription/TranslationSMP00019 Not Available
Urea CycleSMP00059 map00330
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
Flavours
FlavorCitations
mild
  1. The Good Scents Company (2009). Flavor and fragrance information catalog. <http://www.thegoodscentscompany.com/allprod.html> Accessed 15.10.23.
yeast
  1. The Good Scents Company (2009). Flavor and fragrance information catalog. <http://www.thegoodscentscompany.com/allprod.html> Accessed 15.10.23.
baked
  1. The Good Scents Company (2009). Flavor and fragrance information catalog. <http://www.thegoodscentscompany.com/allprod.html> Accessed 15.10.23.
bread
  1. The Good Scents Company (2009). Flavor and fragrance information catalog. <http://www.thegoodscentscompany.com/allprod.html> Accessed 15.10.23.
Files
MSDSshow
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference— Saxholt, E., et al. 'Danish food composition databank, revision 7.' Department of Nutrition, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark (2008).
— U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2008. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page.
— Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).
— Shinbo, Y., et al. 'KNApSAcK: a comprehensive species-metabolite relationship database.' Plant Metabolomics. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006. 165-181.