Record Information
Version1.0
Creation date2010-04-08 22:10:19 UTC
Update date2019-11-26 03:07:25 UTC
Primary IDFDB012703
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB NameD-Galactose
DescriptionThe free sugar has been detected in some fruits. Polysaccharides agar, gum arabic, mesquite gum, western larch gum and many plant mucilages and gums contain galactose D-Galactose is an aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. D-Galactose is an energy-providing nutrient and also a necessary basic substrate for the biosynthesis of many macromolecules in the body. Metabolic pathways for D-Galactose are important not only for the provision of these pathways but also for the prevention of D-Galactose and D-Galactose metabolite accumulation. The main source of D-Galactose is lactose in the milk of mammals, but it can also be found in some fruits and vegetables. Utilization of D-Galactose in all living cells is initiated by the phosphorylation of the hexose by the enzyme galactokinase (E.C. 2.7.1.6) (GALK) to form D-Galactose-1-phosphate. In the presence of D-Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (E.C. 2.7.7.12) (GALT) D-Galactose-1-phosphate is exchanged with glucose-1-phosphate in UDP-glucose to form UDP-galactose. Glucose-1-phosphate will then enter the glycolytic pathway for energy production. Deficiency of the enzyme GALT in galactosemic patients leads to the accumulation of D-Galactose-1-phosphate. Classic galactosemia-a term that denotes the presence of D-Galactose in the blood is the rare inborn error of D-Galactose metabolism, diagnosed by the deficiency of the second enzyme of the D-Galactose assimilation pathway, GALT, which, in turn, is caused by mutations at the GALT gene. (PMID: 15256214, 11020650, 10408771); In organic chemistry, a hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms, having the chemical formula C6H12O6. Hexoses are classified by functional group, with aldohexoses having an aldehyde at position 1, and ketohexoses having a ketone at position 2. Galactose in the urine is a biomarker for the consumption of milk.
CAS Number59-23-4
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymSource
D-GalactopyranoseKegg
D-GalactoseChEBI
L-GalactopyranoseHMDB
D GalactoseMeSH
GalactopyranoseMeSH
GalactopyranosideMeSH
GalactoseMeSH
(+)-galactosebiospider
5AbpHMDB
8AbpHMDB
a D-GALACTOSEGenerator
a-D-GalGenerator
a-D-GalactoseGenerator
ALPHA D-GALACTOSEChEBI
alpha-D-GalChEBI
D-(+)-galactosebiospider
D-galactopyranosemanual
D-galactosebiospider
D-HexoseHMDB
GALHMDB
Gal-aGenerator
Gal-alphaChEBI
Gal-αGenerator
Galactose (NF)HMDB
Galactose, d-biospider
GLCHMDB
HexoseHMDB
α D-galactoseGenerator
α-D-galGenerator
α-D-galactoseGenerator
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility782 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-2.9ChemAxon
logS0.64ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area110.38 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.92 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.13 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC6H12O6
IUPAC name(3R,4S,5R,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-11H,1H2/t2-,3+,4+,5-,6?/m1/s1
InChI KeyWQZGKKKJIJFFOK-SVZMEOIVSA-N
Isomeric SMILESOC[C@H]1OC(O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
Average Molecular Weight180.1559
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight180.063388116
Classification
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentHexoses
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hexose monosaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Hemiacetal
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
OntologyNo ontology term
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
PropertyValueReference
Physical stateSolid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionC 40.00%; H 6.71%; O 53.28%DFC
Melting PointMp 118-120° (monohydrate)DFC
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water Solubility683 mg/mLYALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKapKa1 12.35 (25°)DFC
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
EI-MS/GC-MS
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSL-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-066s-0941000000-8f1b68655e0a5ed179e3Spectrum
GC-MSL-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0ldj-0941000000-84c771fab416aa0a40d8Spectrum
GC-MSL-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0ktb-0931000000-6f37a774d1ab64585c8dSpectrum
GC-MSL-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-066s-0931000000-9945093085ef7b0de618Spectrum
GC-MSL-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0ldj-0931000000-1ed532d5d2897be775dfSpectrum
GC-MSL-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00di-9731000000-af5bd67ad0bbb2997839Spectrum
GC-MSL-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00di-9621000000-9dad5bd1760a891ace2aSpectrum
GC-MSL-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0fr2-0920000000-d0bbaf502997c43971baSpectrum
GC-MSL-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0fr2-1920000000-f47f0b66263744db15baSpectrum
GC-MSL-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-066s-0941000000-8f1b68655e0a5ed179e3Spectrum
GC-MSL-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0ldj-0941000000-84c771fab416aa0a40d8Spectrum
GC-MSL-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0ktb-0931000000-6f37a774d1ab64585c8dSpectrum
GC-MSL-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-066s-0931000000-9945093085ef7b0de618Spectrum
GC-MSL-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0ldj-0931000000-1ed532d5d2897be775dfSpectrum
GC-MSL-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00di-9731000000-af5bd67ad0bbb2997839Spectrum
GC-MSL-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00di-9621000000-9dad5bd1760a891ace2aSpectrum
GC-MSL-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0fr2-0920000000-d0bbaf502997c43971baSpectrum
GC-MSL-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0fr2-1920000000-f47f0b66263744db15baSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSL-Galactose, non-derivatized, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-08g0-9700000000-d7fbea2263840ca358b3Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSL-Galactose, 5 TMS, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004i-6122690000-eaf6f7adf34ccd0c667bSpectrum
MS/MS
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-01ot-2900000000-358281e9439d096e0a76Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01q9-0900000000-ecd0aedc67c9a2eec60fSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03ea-2900000000-e4daf22c7320ccc41812Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0005-9200000000-91fc3940732f782a88bbSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-1900000000-e9f3e728d1b340759a09Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01t9-5900000000-c0a478f2b9c5bbc6c4baSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9100000000-06852e2088bf1c6b38c4Spectrum
NMRNot Available
ChemSpider ID388480
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1233058
KEGG Compound IDC00984
Pubchem Compound ID439357
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI ID4139
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB00143
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDGZN85-U:HJX97-A
EAFUS IDNot Available
Dr. Duke IDD-GALACTOSE|GALACTOSE
BIGG ID33945
KNApSAcK IDC00019681
HET IDGLA
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDGalactose
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
FoodReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / Bioactivities
DescriptorIDDefinitionReference
sweetener50505 Substance that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc.DUKE
Enzymes
NameGene NameUniProt ID
Alpha-galactosidase AGLAP06280
Lactase-phlorizin hydrolaseLCTP09848
Beta-galactosidaseGLB1P16278
Maltase-glucoamylase, intestinalMGAMO43451
Neutral alpha-glucosidase CGANCQ8TET4
N-acetylgalactosamine kinaseGALK2Q01415
GalactokinaseGALK1P51570
Hexokinase-3HK3P52790
Hexokinase-2HK2P52789
Hexokinase-1HK1P19367
GalactocerebrosidaseGALCP54803
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Galactose MetabolismSMP00043 map00052
Lactose DegradationSMP00457 Not Available
Nucleotide Sugars MetabolismSMP00010 map00520
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
FlavoursNot Available
Files
MSDSNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference— U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2008. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 21. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page.
— Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).
— Shinbo, Y., et al. 'KNApSAcK: a comprehensive species-metabolite relationship database.' Plant Metabolomics. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006. 165-181.
— Saxholt, E., et al. 'Danish food composition databank, revision 7.' Department of Nutrition, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark (2008).