Record Information
Version1.0
Creation date2011-04-07 23:15:07 UTC
Update date2020-09-17 15:41:19 UTC
Primary IDFDB021787
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB Namealpha-D-Galactose
DescriptionD-galactose, also known as galactopyranose, is an aldohexose is a C4-epimer of glucose. It is as sweet as glucose and only 65% as sweet as sucrose. When D-galactose condenses with glucose, lactose if formed. In humans and other species, galactose is metabolized to glucose largely by the Leloir pathway. D-galactose is converted to UDP-glucose and glucose-1-phosphate by three enzymes (PMID: 1292318): 1) Galactokinase (GALK; KEGG enzyme E.C. 2.7.1.6) phosphorylates D-galactose to D-galactose-1-phosphate; 2) Then D-galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT; KEGG enzyme E.C. 2.7.7.12) transfers a UMP from UDP-glucose to D-galactose-1-phosphate to form UDP-galactose and glucose-1-phosphate. Glucose-1-phosphate will then enter the glycolytic pathway for energy production. 3) UDP-galactose epimerase (GALE) then interconverts UDP-galactose to UDP-glucose. Lactose in mammalian milk is the main source of D-galactose. Galactose in the urine is a biomarker for the consumption of milk. Galactose can also be found in some fruits and vegetables such as in banana, orange, papaya, bell pepper, avocado and sugar beets ( http://www.thegoodscentscompany.com/data/rw1233801.html#tooccur). It is also found in fig leaves, sesame, carob bean, caraway seeds and beet, cocoa, chive, potato. In addition to D-Galactose providing energy for the body, it is also a necessary substrate for the biosynthesis of many macromolecules such as cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Galactose is a component of the antigens of the ABO blood group (PMID: 15373665). Metabolic pathways for D-galactose are important not only for the provision of these pathways but also for the prevention of D-galactose accumulation. There are diseases resulting from the deficiencies of the three enzymes of the Leloir pathway. Classic galactosemia, or the accumulation of D-galactose in the blood, is the rare inborn error of D-galactose metabolism, caused by the deficiency of the second enzyme GALT, (from mutations in the GALT gene; PMID: 10408771). As galactose accumulation is associated with health problems (PMID: 26001656), particularly involving the liver (PMID: 29502917), the discovery of alternative metabolic pathways to the Leloir in fungi and bacteria (PMID:15256214) could lead to discovery of analogous genes in humans. D-galactose was also be protective against pancreatitis (PMID: 2989374) and streptozotocin-induced model of Alzheimer’s disease in rats (PMID: 29501615).
CAS Number3646-73-9
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymSource
ALPHA D-GALACTOSEChEBI
alpha-D-GalChEBI
Gal-alphaChEBI
alpha-D-GalactoseKegg
a D-GALACTOSEGenerator
Α D-galactoseGenerator
a-D-GalGenerator
Α-D-galGenerator
Gal-aGenerator
Gal-αGenerator
a-D-GalactoseGenerator
Α-D-galactoseGenerator
(+)-GalactoseHMDB
5AbpHMDB
8AbpHMDB
alpha-D-GalactopyranoseHMDB
D-(+)-GalactoseHMDB
D-HexoseHMDB
GALHMDB
GalactoseHMDB
Galactose (NF)HMDB
GLAHMDB
GLCHMDB
HexoseHMDB
SHU 508 aMeSH, HMDB
SH-TA-508MeSH, HMDB
SHU 508MeSH, HMDB
LevovistMeSH, HMDB
SHU-508MeSH, HMDB
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility782 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-2.9ChemAxon
logS0.64ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area110.38 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.92 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.13 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC6H12O6
IUPAC name(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-11H,1H2/t2-,3+,4+,5-,6+/m1/s1
InChI KeyWQZGKKKJIJFFOK-PHYPRBDBSA-N
Isomeric SMILESOC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
Average Molecular Weight180.1559
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight180.063388116
Classification
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentHexoses
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hexose monosaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Hemiacetal
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
PropertyValueReference
Physical stateNot Available
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionNot Available
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
EI-MS/GC-MS
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-066s-0941000000-8f1b68655e0a5ed179e3Spectrum
GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0ldj-0941000000-84c771fab416aa0a40d8Spectrum
GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0ktb-0931000000-6f37a774d1ab64585c8dSpectrum
GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-066s-0931000000-9945093085ef7b0de618Spectrum
GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0ldj-0931000000-1ed532d5d2897be775dfSpectrum
GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00di-9731000000-af5bd67ad0bbb2997839Spectrum
GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00di-9621000000-9dad5bd1760a891ace2aSpectrum
GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0fr2-0920000000-d0bbaf502997c43971baSpectrum
GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0fr2-1920000000-f47f0b66263744db15baSpectrum
GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-066s-0941000000-8f1b68655e0a5ed179e3Spectrum
GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0ldj-0941000000-84c771fab416aa0a40d8Spectrum
GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0ktb-0931000000-6f37a774d1ab64585c8dSpectrum
GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-066s-0931000000-9945093085ef7b0de618Spectrum
GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0ldj-0931000000-1ed532d5d2897be775dfSpectrum
GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00di-9731000000-af5bd67ad0bbb2997839Spectrum
GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-00di-9621000000-9dad5bd1760a891ace2aSpectrum
GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0fr2-0920000000-d0bbaf502997c43971baSpectrum
GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-0fr2-1920000000-f47f0b66263744db15baSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0np0-9700000000-e8d638dc817e46b97d7bSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, 5 TMS, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004i-6122690000-eaf6f7adf34ccd0c667bSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, non-derivatized, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, TMS_1_1, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, TMS_1_2, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSalpha-D-Galactose, TMS_1_3, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableSpectrum
MS/MS
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0f6t-0900000000-70d3989fddd34b894c77Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00ri-9700000000-d454170b4e3ed18ed2d9Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-007a-9300000000-81f5f12f84924a34e2c0Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 10V, negativesplash10-059i-9100000000-33aacf4c62b17cfa394eSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 20V, negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-79ea696263aaad168701Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 40V, negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-480461c1cdd9d138dce2Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-059i-9100000000-33aacf4c62b17cfa394eSpectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-79ea696263aaad168701Spectrum
MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-480461c1cdd9d138dce2Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01q9-0900000000-b0bc47623e7b2ca31c02Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03ea-3900000000-648e1637af29cf2a3518Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0007-9200000000-9e6f46a1cbf52d6e347aSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-2900000000-a4ec4f0b1e29e360a952Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01t9-6900000000-7b3ea9c64ecc8d4ac867Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9100000000-ec2bf4918640a0a36398Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-2900000000-2448926b508622464fe7Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-056r-8900000000-4c073cb93b78120113e6Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-ece70093ab5d3c331ac4Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01qa-0900000000-04ceb34d441ff6a75763Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03dl-9400000000-a8f1ceab155611f949c1Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-01ow-9000000000-358f68fc2b7a72c27546Spectrum
NMR
TypeDescriptionView
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumSpectrum
ChemSpider IDNot Available
ChEMBL IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC00984
Pubchem Compound ID439357
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI ID28061
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDGZN85-U:HJZ10-F
EAFUS IDNot Available
Dr. Duke IDNot Available
BIGG IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
HET IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDGalactose
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
FoodReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / BioactivitiesNot Available
EnzymesNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
FlavoursNot Available
Files
MSDSNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference