Record Information
Creation date2011-09-21 00:14:40 UTC
Update date2015-07-21 06:57:14 UTC
Primary IDFDB022479
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB NameDiadenosine pentaphosphate
DescriptionDiadenosine pentaphosphate (AP5A) is a diadenosine polyphosphate. Diadenosine polyphosphates (APnAs, n = 3-6) are a family of endogenous vasoactive purine dinucleotides which have been isolated from thrombocytes. APnAs have been demonstrated to be involved in the control of vascular tone as well as the growth of vascular smooth muscle cells and hence, possibly, in atherogenesis. APnAs isolated substances are Ap3A, Ap4A, Ap5A, and Ap6A. APnAs are naturally occurring substances that facilitate tear secretion; they are released from the corneal epithelium, they stimulate tear production and therefore they may be considered as physiological modulators of tear secretion. The APnAs were discovered in the mid-sixties in the course of studies on aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS). APnAs have emerged as intracellular and extracellular signalling molecules implicated in the maintenance and regulation of vital cellular functions and become considered as second messengers. Great variety of physiological and pathological effects in mammalian cells was found to be associated with alterations of APnAs. APnAs are polyphosphated nucleotidic substances which are found in the CNS and are known to be released in a calcium-dependent manner from storage vesicles in brain synaptosomes. AP5A is a specific adenylate kinase inhibitor in the hippocampus, decreasing the rate of decomposition of ADP and the formation of ATP; a pathway that influences the availability of purines in the central nervous system. AP5A in nanomolar concentrations is found to significantly stimulate the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. AP5A is a P2X agonist. The activation of nucleotide ion tropic receptors increases intracellular calcium concentration, resulting in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activation. AP5A is an avid inhibitor of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). EDN is a catalytically proficient member of the pancreatic ribonuclease superfamily secreted along with other eosinophil granule proteins during innate host defense responses and various eosinophil-related inflammatory and allergic diseases. The ribonucleolytic activity of EDN is central to its antiviral and neurotoxic activities and possibly to other facets of its biological activity. AP5A have been identified in human platelets and shown to be important modulator of cardiovascular function. AP5A is stored in synaptic vesicles and released upon nerve terminal depolarization. At the extracellular level, AP5A can stimulate presynaptic dinucleotide receptors. Responses to AP5A have been described in isolated synaptic terminals (synaptosomes) from several brain areas in different animal species, including man. Dinucleotide receptors are ligand-operated ion channels that allow the influx of cations into the terminals. These cations reach a threshold for N- and P/Q-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, which become activated. The activation of the dinucleotide receptor together with the activation of these calcium channels triggers the release of neurotransmitters. The ability of Ap5A to promote glutamate, GABA or acetylcholine release has been described. (PMID: 11212966, 12738682, 11810214, 9607303, 8922753, 10094777, 16401072, 16819989, 17721817, 17361116, 14502438) [HMDB]
CAS Number41708-91-2
Diadenosine pentaphosphoric acidGenerator
Bis(5'-adenosyl) pentaphosphateHMDB
P1,P5-Bis(5'-adenosyl) pentaphosphateHMDB
Diadenosine pentaphosphateMeSH
Bis(5'-adenosyl) pentaateHMDB
P1,P5-Bis(5'-adenosyl) pentaateHMDB
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility6.92 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.42ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)5.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count24ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count11ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area480.5 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count16ChemAxon
Refractivity176.98 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability70.64 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings6ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC20H29N10O22P5
IUPAC name{[(3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}[({[({[({[(2R,3S,4R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy](hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy)(hydroxy)phosphoryl]oxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy]phosphinic acid
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C20H29N10O22P5/c21-15-9-17(25-3-23-15)29(5-27-9)19-13(33)11(31)7(47-19)1-45-53(35,36)49-55(39,40)51-57(43,44)52-56(41,42)50-54(37,38)46-2-8-12(32)14(34)20(48-8)30-6-28-10-16(22)24-4-26-18(10)30/h3-8,11-14,19-20,31-34H,1-2H2,(H,35,36)(H,37,38)(H,39,40)(H,41,42)(H,43,44)(H2,21,23,25)(H2,22,24,26)/t7-,8?,11-,12-,13-,14-,19?,20-/m1/s1
Isomeric SMILESNC1=NC=NC2=C1N=CN2[C@@H]1OC(COP(O)(=O)OP(O)(=O)OP(O)(=O)OP(O)(=O)OP(O)(=O)OC[C@H]2OC([C@H](O)[C@@H]2O)N2C=NC3=C(N)N=CN=C23)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
Average Molecular Weight916.3669
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight916.014595222
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as (5'->5')-dinucleotides. These are dinucleotides where the two bases are connected via a (5'->5')-phosphodiester linkage.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct Parent(5'->5')-dinucleotides
Alternative Parents
  • (5'->5')-dinucleotide
  • Purine ribonucleoside polyphosphate
  • Purine nucleotide sugar
  • Purine ribonucleoside monophosphate
  • Pentose phosphate
  • Pentose-5-phosphate
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Monosaccharide
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Pyrimidine
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Imidolactam
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Azacycle
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Alcohol
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Amine
  • Primary amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Physiological effect

Health effect:


Biological location:


Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physical stateSolid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionNot Available
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
EI-MS/GC-MSNot Available
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0910110011-1ebff4f5c0c03c91e6eeSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-623ceb91f1640e41633eSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-cdaf365f0907c80b5c9eSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0159-0800002029-e9b528c6c068c211d5e3Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-1900002010-18b81de82c73e4a55904Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-1905100000-bcbb28a6c851b25ab62aSpectrum
NMRNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
ChEMBL IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
Pubchem Compound ID53477724
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDNot Available
EAFUS IDNot Available
Dr. Duke IDNot Available
BIGG IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
HET IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / BioactivitiesNot Available
EnzymesNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
FlavoursNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference