Record Information
Version1.0
Creation date2011-09-21 00:22:55 UTC
Update date2019-11-26 03:21:07 UTC
Primary IDFDB022990
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB NameBeryllium
DescriptionBeryllium is a light-weight metallic element, which was first recognized as a lung hazard in Europe in the 1930s, shortly after its first production in modern industry. People exposed to beryllium compounds are at increased risk of developing beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease (CBD). The chronic lung disease was first described among workers exposed to beryllium-containing materials used in the manufacture of fluorescent lamps. In primary production of beryllium metal, which was used in nuclear weapons components, physicians recognized severe dermatitis, reversible pneumonitis, and chronic granulomatous lung disease. Physiologically, this metal/element exists as an ion in the body. It is now recognized that the physicochemical properties of beryllium compounds may account for the differing clinical presentations in different industries. In primary production of beryllium metal, soluble salts are present and cause rashes in approximately one fourth of exposed workers and reversible acute pneumonitis in a smaller portion of the workforce. After heavy inhalation exposures, radiographic abnormalities evolve at approximately three weeks; resolution of symptoms and radiologic abnormalities away from exposure occur only after months, but symptoms recur immediately upon reexposure. The granulomatous nature of chronic beryllium disease is now known to be caused by cell-mediated sensitization to beryllium. Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disorder characterized by the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells. Depending on genetic susceptibility and the nature of the exposure, CBD occurs in up to 20% of exposed workers. Genetic susceptibility has been associated with particular HLA-DP alleles, especially those possessing a negatively charged glutamic acid residue at the 69th position of the beta-chain. The mechanism for this association lies in the ability of these HLA-DP molecules to bind and present beryllium to pathogenic CD4(+) T cells. Large numbers of effector memory, beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells are recruited to the lung of these subjects and secrete Th1-type cytokines upon beryllium recognition. The presence of circulating beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells directly correlates with the severity of lymphocytic alveolitis. Since 1987, this biomarker of sensitization has enabled medical surveillance of beryllium-exposed workforces. Beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests have been used to screen workers to detect sensitization, to characterize epidemiologically workplace risks for beryllium sensitization, and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions intended to prevent sensitization. The most compelling real-world example of genetic testing for susceptibility to a workplace exposure involves those industries that process or fabricate beryllium. Under reasonable assumptions, the longitudinal positive predictive value of the HLA-DPB1-Glu69 marker of susceptibility to beryllium disease is 12%. Interpretive challenges further limit the utility of the test and may inadvertently suggest a false sense of safety among workers. Reduction in inhalation exposure to beryllium has not resulted in a concomitant reduction in the occurrence of beryllium sensitization or CBD, suggesting that continued prevalence may be due, in part, to unchecked skin exposure to beryllium-containing particles. (PMID: 17094767, 16697706, 16231190) [HMDB]. Beryllium is found in spinach.
CAS Number7440-41-7
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymSource
Be(2+)ChEBI
BeHMDB
Beryllium atomHMDB
Beryllium elementHMDB
Beryllium metallicumHMDB
Beryllium-9HMDB
GluciniumHMDB
GlucinumHMDB
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Chemical FormulaBe
IUPAC name
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Be/q+2
InChI KeyPWOSZCQLSAMRQW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Isomeric SMILES[Be++]
Average Molecular Weight9.0122
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight9.012182135
Classification
Description Belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a alkaline earth metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous alkaline earth metal
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Source:

Route of exposure:

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Environmental role:

Indirect biological role:

Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
PropertyValueReference
Physical stateSolid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionNot Available
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
EI-MS/GC-MSNot Available
MS/MSNot Available
NMRNot Available
ChemSpider ID96830
ChEMBL IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC16460
Pubchem Compound ID107649
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI ID30501
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB02387
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDNot Available
EAFUS IDNot Available
Dr. Duke IDNot Available
BIGG IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
HET IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
FoodReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / BioactivitiesNot Available
EnzymesNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
FlavoursNot Available
Files
MSDSshow
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference