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Record Information
Creation date2011-09-21 00:25:35 UTC
Update date2020-09-17 15:30:47 UTC
Primary IDFDB023163
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB NameD-Lysine
DescriptionLysine and its bioactive form L-lysine, abbreviated Lys or L, is an essential amino acid. Normal requirements for adults are between 8 g per day or 12 mg/kg. Children and infants need more: 44 mg/kg per day for an eleven to-twelve-year old, and 97 mg/kg per day for three-to six-month old. Lysine is highly concentrated in muscle compared to most other amino acids. Normal lysine metabolism is dependent upon many nutrients including niacin, vitamin B6, riboflavin, vitamin C, glutamic acid and iron. Several inborn errors of lysine metabolism are known, such as cystinuria, hyperdibasic aminoaciduria I, lysinuric protein intolerance, propionic acidemia, and tyrosinemia I. Most are marked by mental retardation with occasional diverse symptoms such as absence of secondary sex characteristics, undescended testes, abnormal facial structure, anemia, obesity, enlarged liver and spleen, and eye muscle imbalance. Low lysine levels have been found in patients with Parkinson's, hypothyroidism, kidney disease, asthma and depression. The exact significance of these levels is unclear, yet lysine therapy can normalize these levels and has been associated with improvement of some patients with these conditions. Abnormally elevated hydroxylysines have been found in virtually all chronic degenerative diseases and coumadin therapy. The levels of this stress marker may be improved by high doses of vitamin C. Lysine is particularly useful in therapy for marasmus (wasting) and herpes simplex. It stops the growth of herpes simplex in culture and has helped to reduce the number and occurrence of cold sores in clinical studies. Beneficial clinical effects occurred with lysine doses ranging from 100 mg to 4 g a day. Higher doses may also be useful, and toxicity has not been reported in doses as high as 8 g per day. Diets high in lysine and low in arginine can be useful in the prevention and treatment of herpes as excess arginine antagonizes lysine. Lysine also may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of osteoporosis because it reduces calcium losses in urine. Although high protein diets result in loss of large amounts of calcium in urine, so does lysine deficiency. Lysine deficiency also may result in immunodeficiency. Requirements for this amino acid are probably increased by stress. Lysine is high in foods such as wheat germ, cottage cheese, chicken, wild game and pork. Less lysine is found in apple, apricot, bananas, avocados, guava, lime, brazil nuts, cashews, mung bean, fava bean and black bean as well as other seeds, nuts and fruits.
CAS Number923-27-3
(R)-2,6-Diaminohexanoic acidChEBI
D-2,6-Diaminohexanoic acidChEBI
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility105 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.74ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.29ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area89.34 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity37.81 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability15.91 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC6H14N2O2
IUPAC name(2R)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C6H14N2O2/c7-4-2-1-3-5(8)6(9)10/h5H,1-4,7-8H2,(H,9,10)/t5-/m1/s1
Average Molecular Weight146.19
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight146.105527699
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as d-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the D-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentD-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
  • D-alpha-amino acid
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Amino acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physiological effect

Health effect:



Biological location:


Industrial application:

Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physical stateSolid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionNot Available
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
EI-MS/GC-MSNot Available
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0f8a-2900000000-d5972dfce0860da55a0aSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0f89-9700000000-d8e3259076e214ba9a3fSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a5c-9000000000-0b901a2eb0a82d41fc3dSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-603377bb44b83d433b77Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-3900000000-e5d6ccb8cd7879780fafSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9100000000-e7f9a18ab48141069feeSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumSpectrum
ChemSpider ID51793
KEGG Compound IDC00739
Pubchem Compound ID57449
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16855
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDNot Available
EAFUS IDNot Available
Dr. Duke IDNot Available
BIGG IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / BioactivitiesNot Available
EnzymesNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
FlavoursNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference