Record Information
Creation date2011-09-21 00:31:13 UTC
Update date2015-07-21 06:57:45 UTC
Primary IDFDB023529
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB NameGanglioside GM2 (d18:1/22:0)
DescriptionA glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide)or oligoglycosylceramide with one or more sialic acids (i.e. n-acetylneuraminic acid) linked on the sugar chain. It is a component the cell plasma membrane which modulates cell signal transduction events. Gangliosides have been found to be highly important in immunology. Ganglioside GM2 carries a net-negative charge at pH 7.0 and is acidic. Gangliosides can amount to 6% of the weight of lipids from brain, but they are found at low levels in all animal tissues. G(M2) Ganglioside accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase), or GM2 activator protein, resulting in Gangliosidoses. Gangliosidoses include heredity metabolic disorders that include Tay-Sachs disease and Sandhoff disease. Gangliosides GM2 is especially common in the nervous tissue of the brain. In the United States, about 1 in 27 to 1 in 30 Ashkenazi Jews is a recessive carrier. French Canadians and the Cajun community of Louisiana have an occurrence similar to the Ashkenazi Jews. Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids. There are four types of glycosphingolipids, the cerebrosides, sulfatides, globosides and gangliosides. Gangliosides are very similar to globosides except that they also contain N-acetyl neuraminic acid (NANA) in varying amounts. The specific names for the gangliosides provide information about their structure. The letter G refers to ganglioside, and the subscripts M, D, T and Q indicate that the molecule contains mono-, di-, tri and quatra-sialic acid. The numbered subscripts 1, 2 and 3 refer to the carbohydrate sequence that is attached to the ceramide. In particular, 1 stands for GalGalNAcGalGlc-ceramide, 2 stands for GalNAcGalGlc-ceramide and 3 stands for GalGlc-ceramide. Deficiencies in lysosomal enzymes that degrade the carbohydrate portions of various gangliosides are responsible for a number of lysosomal storage diseases such as Tay-Sachs disease, Sandhoff disease, and GM1 gangliosidosis. The carbohydrate portion of the ganglioside GM1 is the site of attachment of cholera toxin, the protein secreted by Vibrio cholerae. [HMDB]
CAS NumberNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.023 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.02ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.47ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count29ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count17ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area471.9 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count53ChemAxon
Refractivity363.56 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability162 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC71H129N3O26
IUPAC name(2S,4S,5R)-2-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R,6S)-3-{[(2S,3R,4R,5R,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-3-[(1-hydroxyethylidene)amino]-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}-6-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-{[(2S,3R)-3-hydroxy-2-[(1-hydroxydocosylidene)amino]octadec-4-en-1-yl]oxy}-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy}-5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-4-yl]oxy}-4-hydroxy-5-[(1-hydroxyethylidene)amino]-6-[(1R,2R)-1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl]oxane-2-carboxylic acid
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C71H129N3O26/c1-5-7-9-11-13-15-17-19-20-21-22-23-24-26-28-30-32-34-36-38-54(84)74-47(48(81)37-35-33-31-29-27-25-18-16-14-12-10-8-6-2)44-93-68-61(89)60(88)63(52(42-77)95-68)97-69-62(90)66(64(53(43-78)96-69)98-67-56(73-46(4)80)59(87)58(86)51(41-76)94-67)100-71(70(91)92)39-49(82)55(72-45(3)79)65(99-71)57(85)50(83)40-75/h35,37,47-53,55-69,75-78,81-83,85-90H,5-34,36,38-44H2,1-4H3,(H,72,79)(H,73,80)(H,74,84)(H,91,92)/t47-,48+,49-,50+,51+,52+,53+,55+,56+,57+,58-,59+,60+,61+,62+,63+,64-,65?,66+,67-,68+,69-,71-/m0/s1
Isomeric SMILES[H][C@@](O)(CO)[C@@]([H])(O)C1O[C@@](C[C@]([H])(O)[C@@]1([H])NC(C)=O)(O[C@]1([H])[C@@]([H])(O)[C@]([H])(O[C@]2([H])[C@@]([H])(CO)O[C@@]([H])(OC[C@]([H])(NC(=O)CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC)[C@]([H])(O)C=CCCCCCCCCCCCCC)[C@]([H])(O)[C@@]2([H])O)O[C@]([H])(CO)[C@]1([H])O[C@]1([H])O[C@]([H])(CO)[C@]([H])(O)[C@]([H])(O)[C@@]1([H])NC(C)=O)C(O)=O
Average Molecular Weight1440.7885
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight1439.886431315
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as galnacb1-4galb1-4glc- (ganglio series). These are neutral glycosphingolipids in which the root sequence is GalNAcb1-4Galb1-4Glc.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
Sub ClassGlycosphingolipids
Direct ParentGalNAcb1-4Galb1-4Glc- (Ganglio series)
Alternative Parents
  • Galnacb1-4galb1-4glcb-cer_backbone
  • Neuaca2-3galb1-4glcb-cer_backbone
  • Glycosyl-n-acylsphingosine
  • Oligosaccharide
  • N-acylneuraminic acid or derivatives
  • N-acylneuraminic acid
  • Neuraminic acid
  • N-acyl-alpha-hexosamine
  • Fatty acyl glycoside
  • C-glucuronide
  • Alkyl glycoside
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Glycosyl compound
  • C-glycosyl compound
  • Ketal
  • Fatty acyl
  • Pyran
  • Oxane
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Fatty amide
  • Acetamide
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxamide group
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Acetal
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
OntologyNo ontology term
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physical stateSolid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionNot Available
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
SpectraNot Available
ChemSpider ID16744927
ChEMBL IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC04884
Pubchem Compound ID20057337
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDNot Available
EAFUS IDNot Available
Dr. Duke IDNot Available
BIGG IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
HET IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDGM2_(ganglioside)
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / BioactivitiesNot Available
NameGene NameUniProt ID
Lactase-phlorizin hydrolaseLCTP09848
Ganglioside GM2 activatorGM2AP17900
N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol de-N-acetylasePIGLQ9Y2B2
Phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase subunit QPIGQQ9BRB3
Phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase subunit APIGAP37287
Phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase subunit HPIGHQ14442
Phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase subunit PPIGPP57054
Phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase subunit CPIGCQ92535
T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, membrane-associatedCD1EP15812
Epididymal secretory protein E1NPC2P61916
Antigen-presenting glycoprotein CD1dCD1DP15813
GPI mannosyltransferase 1PIGMQ9H3S5
Phosphatidylinositol-glycan biosynthesis class W proteinPIGWQ7Z7B1
Phosphatidylinositol-glycan biosynthesis class X proteinPIGXQ8TBF5
GPI mannosyltransferase 4PIGZQ86VD9
Lactosylceramide 1,3-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyltransferaseB3GNT5Q9BYG0
Beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase 5B3GALT5Q9Y2C3
GPI mannosyltransferase 3PIGBQ92521
Phosphatidylinositol-glycan biosynthesis class F proteinPIGFQ07326
GPI ethanolamine phosphate transferase 2PIGGQ5H8A4
GPI ethanolamine phosphate transferase 1PIGNO95427
GPI ethanolamine phosphate transferase 3PIGOQ8TEQ8
GPI transamidase component PIG-SPIGSQ96S52
GPI transamidase component PIG-TPIGTQ969N2
Phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class U proteinPIGUQ9H490
GPI mannosyltransferase 2PIGVQ9NUD9
Phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase subunit YPIGYQ3MUY2
Non-lysosomal glucosylceramidaseGBA2Q9HCG7
GPI-anchor transamidasePIGKQ92643
Beta-1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1B4GALNT1Q00973
Beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase 4B3GALT4O96024
Beta-hexosaminidase subunit betaHEXBP07686
Beta-hexosaminidase subunit alphaHEXAP06865
Alpha-N-acetylneuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferaseST8SIA1Q92185
Lactosylceramide alpha-2,3-sialyltransferaseST3GAL5Q9UNP4
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
FlavoursNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference