Record Information
Creation date2015-05-07 18:42:07 UTC
Update date2019-11-26 03:21:37 UTC
Primary IDFDB030146
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB Name(R)-lactate
DescriptionD-lactic acid, also known as D-lactate or D-2-hydroxypropanoic acid, belongs to alpha hydroxy acids and derivatives class of compounds. Those are organic compounds containing a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the adjacent carbon. D-lactic acid is soluble (in water) and a weakly acidic compound (based on its pKa). D-lactic acid can be found in a number of food items such as tamarind, onion-family vegetables, allspice, and acerola, which makes D-lactic acid a potential biomarker for the consumption of these food products. D-lactic acid can be found primarily in blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and urine, as well as throughout most human tissues. D-lactic acid exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. In humans, D-lactic acid is involved in a couple of metabolic pathways, which include pyruvaldehyde degradation and pyruvate metabolism. D-lactic acid is also involved in several metabolic disorders, some of which include pyruvate kinase deficiency, pyruvate decarboxylase E1 component deficiency (PDHE1 deficiency), pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency, and leigh syndrome. Moreover, D-lactic acid is found to be associated with diabetes mellitus type 2 and schizophrenia. D-lactic acid is a non-carcinogenic (not listed by IARC) potentially toxic compound. In animals, L-lactate is constantly produced from pyruvate via the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in a process of fermentation during normal metabolism and exercise. It does not increase in concentration until the rate of lactate production exceeds the rate of lactate removal, which is governed by a number of factors, including monocarboxylate transporters, concentration and isoform of LDH, and oxidative capacity of tissues. The concentration of blood lactate is usually 1–2 mmol/L at rest, but can rise to over 20 mmol/L during intense exertion and as high as 25 mmol/L afterward .
CAS Number10326-41-7
(-)-Lactic acidChEBI
(R)-(-)-Lactic acidChEBI
D-2-Hydroxypropanoic acidChEBI
D-2-Hydroxypropionic acidChEBI
(R)-2-Hydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
(R)-2-Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
(R)-a-Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
(R)-alpha-Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
(R)-Lactic acidHMDB
D-(-)-Lactic acidHMDB
delta-(-)-Lactic acidHMDB
delta-2-Hydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
delta-2-Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
delta-Lactic acidHMDB
2 Hydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
2 Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
2-Hydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
Ammonium lactateHMDB
L Lactic acidHMDB
2-Hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
Sarcolactic acidHMDB
D Lactic acidHMDB
Lactate, ammoniumHMDB
L-Lactic acidHMDB
D-Lactic acidChEBI
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility562 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.78ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity18.84 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability8.05 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC3H6O3
IUPAC name(2R)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C3H6O3/c1-2(4)3(5)6/h2,4H,1H3,(H,5,6)/t2-/m1/s1
Isomeric SMILESC[C@@H](O)C(O)=O
Average Molecular Weight90.0779
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight90.031694058
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha hydroxy acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the adjacent carbon.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassHydroxy acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAlpha hydroxy acids and derivatives
Direct ParentAlpha hydroxy acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physiological effect

Health effect:


Route of exposure:


Biological location:


Industrial application:

Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physical stateNot Available
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionNot Available
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kb-0900000000-fb59ec16914501aa19abJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014j-0900000000-c4d9e12b4b0150eda54bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kb-0900000000-fb59ec16914501aa19abJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-a3691f383d440fb00e1fJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-01b9-9620000000-f7faa7db9c1be3d9d975JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-704f8ff33156c82a02d1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000m-9000000000-023931446d9bb3330e7fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000l-9000000000-0fb29afb128baea2240bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-d7cd347946e49a57860eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-006x-9000000000-5f417f4a6d08f0ab00edJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00dm-9000000000-df7a94bb1a9cf6e78e1aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004j-9000000000-dc2a1b965287b9dfee9cJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-c3686a681cc9bbf039e1JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-ddad20647c2ac56efd22JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-b728b45617afcc6b67daJSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-002b-9000000000-50213d6b39ef9741c466JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
ChemSpider IDNot Available
ChEMBL IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
Pubchem Compound IDNot Available
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDNot Available
EAFUS IDNot Available
Dr. Duke IDNot Available
BIGG IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
HET IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / BioactivitiesNot Available
EnzymesNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
FlavoursNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference