Record Information
Creation date2010-04-08 22:10:06 UTC
Update date2019-11-26 03:06:32 UTC
Primary IDFDB012296
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB NameIsosafrole
DescriptionIsolated from leaves of the curryleaf (Murraya koenigii) and from star anise oil (Illicium religiosum) It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide synergist piperonyl butoxide and the recreational drug MDMA ("Ecstacy."); Safrole is a natural plant constituent, found in oil of sassafras and certain other essential oils. It is a member of the methylenedioxybenzene group of compounds, many of which (e.g. piperonyl butoxide) are extensively used as insecticide synergists. A major source of human exposure to safrole is through consumption of spices, such as nutmeg, cinnamon and black pepper, in which safrole is a constituent. Safrole is also present in root beer, and has been used as an additive in chewing gum, toothpaste, soaps and certain pharmaceutical preparations. Safrole is a weak hepatocarcinogen and it is a matter of considerable interest whether the ally1 moiety or the methylenedioxy group, or both, are involved in the mechanism of its carcinogenesis. Safrole is extensively metabolized, giving rise to a large number of metabolites. Metabolism involves essentially two major routes, oxidation of the ally1 side chain, and oxidation of the methylenedioxy group with subsequent cleavage to form the catechol. Safrole undergoes oxidation of the allylic group to yield the 2, 3-epoxide (safrole epoxide). The dihydrodiol is one of the metabolites of safrole, and presumably arises from the hydration of the 2, 3-epoxide. The principal route of metabolism of safrole is through cleavage of the methylenedioxy group, the major metabolites being allylcatechol and its isomer, propenylcatechol. Eugenol and its isomer I-methoxy- 2-hydroxy-4-allylbenzene have been detected as minor metabolites in the rat, mouse and man. (PMID: 6719936); Safrole, also known as shikimol, is a colorless or slightly yellow oily liquid. It is typically extracted from the root-bark or the fruit of sassafras plants in the form of sassafras oil, or synthesized from other related methylenedioxy compounds. It is the principal component of brown camphor oil, and is found in small amounts in a wide variety of plants, where it functions as a natural pesticide. The Ocotea cymbarum[verification needed] oil made of the Ocotea pretiosa[verification needed], a plant growing in Brazil, and sassafras oil made of Sassafras albidum, a tree growing in eastern North America, are the main natural sources for safrole. It has a characteristic "candy-shop" aroma.
CAS Number94-59-7
1, 2-(Methylenedioxy)-4-propenylbenzenebiospider
1,2-(Methylenedioxy)-4-(1-propenyl)benzene, 8CIdb_source
1,3-Benzodioxole, 5-(1-propenyl)-biospider
5-(1-Propenyl)-1,3-benzodioxole, 9CIdb_source
Benzene, 1,2-(methylenedioxy)-4-propenyl-biospider
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.96 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area18.46 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity47.18 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability17.47 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC10H10O2
IUPAC name5-[(1Z)-prop-1-en-1-yl]-2H-1,3-benzodioxole
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C10H10O2/c1-2-3-8-4-5-9-10(6-8)12-7-11-9/h2-6H,7H2,1H3/b3-2-
Isomeric SMILESC\C=C/C1=CC2=C(OCO2)C=C1
Average Molecular Weight162.1852
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight162.068079564
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzodioxoles. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to either isomers of dioxole. Dioxole is a five-membered unsaturated ring of two oxygen atoms and three carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentBenzodioxoles
Alternative Parents
  • Benzodioxole
  • Styrene
  • Benzenoid
  • Oxacycle
  • Acetal
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
OntologyNo ontology term
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physical stateLiquid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionC 74.06%; H 6.21%; O 19.73%DFC
Melting Point6.75 oC
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-a9b2ef545f4e59d96ecbJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-1900000000-f55052ce44255f921c3bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0gbl-9400000000-804c4c6372cdcc8b2e5dJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-a8987b35feb74e1fe8efJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-6cdb0d5a0a8534624c8eJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-015i-3900000000-50e3c0d801d18b1ed710JSpectraViewer
ChemSpider ID13848731
KEGG Compound IDC10490
Pubchem Compound ID5144
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDHFR83-N:HFR83-N
EAFUS IDNot Available
Dr. Duke IDNot Available
BIGG IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDC00002771
HET IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / BioactivitiesNot Available
EnzymesNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
  1. Arn, H, Acree TE. “Flavornet: A database of aroma compounds based on odor potency in natural products”. Developments in Food Science 40 (1998): 27. doi:10.1016/S0167-4501(98)80029-0
  1. Arn, H, Acree TE. “Flavornet: A database of aroma compounds based on odor potency in natural products”. Developments in Food Science 40 (1998): 27. doi:10.1016/S0167-4501(98)80029-0
  1. Arn, H, Acree TE. “Flavornet: A database of aroma compounds based on odor potency in natural products”. Developments in Food Science 40 (1998): 27. doi:10.1016/S0167-4501(98)80029-0
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference