Survey with prize
Record Information
Creation date2011-09-21 00:20:11 UTC
Update date2015-07-21 06:57:23 UTC
Primary IDFDB022824
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB NameHyaluronic acid
DescriptionHyaluronic acid (HA), is the most abundant glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in mammalian tissue. It is present in high concentrations in connective tissue, such as skin, vitreous humor, cartilage, and umbilical cord, but the largest single reservoir is the synovial fluid (SF) of the diarthrodial joints, where concentrations of 0.5-4 mg/mL are achieved. Hyaluronic acid, is the major hydrodynamic nonprotein component of joint SF. Its unique viscoelastic properties confer remarkable shock absorbing and lubricating abilities to SF, while its enormous macromolecular size and hydrophilicity serve to retain fluid in the joint cavity during articulation. HA restricts the entry of large plasma proteins and cells into SF but facilitates solute exchange between the synovial capillaries and cartilage and other joint tissues. In addition, HA can form a pericellular coat around cells, interact with proinflammatory mediators, and bind to cell receptors, such as cluster determinant (CD)44 and receptor for hyaluronate-mediated motility (RHAMM), where it modulates cell proliferation, migration, and gene expression. All these physicochemical and biologic properties of HA have been shown to be molecular weight (MW) dependent. The diverse physicochemical properties of HA arise from its unique macromolecular structure. The HA is an exceptionally long (3-30 μm) and unbranched nonsulfated GAG composed of repeating disaccharide units of N-acetylglucosamine, and glucuronic acid glycosidically linked through their respective 1-4 ring positions. Hydroxyl group oxygens at the glucuronyl-1 and glucosamine 3-positions are used for further polymerization of the HA disaccharide units to form chains that, when released from the cell plasma membrane, are of variable length and thus polydispersity. Despite the simplicity of the HA primary structure, this linear polyelectrolyte adopts complex conformations in solution, which engender it with diverse biologic properties. Within the joint cavity, HA molecules are predominately synthesized by the type B synovial cells. (PMID 12219318) [HMDB]
CAS Number9004-61-9
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility74.5 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.19ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count12ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area193.47 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity88.81 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability40.08 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC16H27NO12
IUPAC name(2S,3S,4R,5R)-6-{[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-3-acetamido-5-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methoxyoxan-4-yl]oxy}-4,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxyoxane-2-carboxylic acid
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C16H27NO12/c1-5(19)17-7-11(8(20)6(4-18)27-15(7)26-3)28-16-10(22)9(21)12(25-2)13(29-16)14(23)24/h6-13,15-16,18,20-22H,4H2,1-3H3,(H,17,19)(H,23,24)/t6-,7-,8-,9-,10-,11-,12+,13+,15-,16?/m1/s1
Isomeric SMILESCO[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H](OC2O[C@@H]([C@@H](OC)[C@H](O)[C@H]2O)C(O)=O)[C@H]1NC(C)=O
Average Molecular Weight425.3851
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight425.153325333
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as n-acyl-alpha-hexosamines. These are carbohydrate derivatives containing a hexose moiety in which the oxygen atom is replaced by an n-acyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentN-acyl-alpha-hexosamines
Alternative Parents
  • N-acyl-alpha-hexosamine
  • 1-o-glucuronide
  • O-glucuronide
  • Glucuronic acid or derivatives
  • Disaccharide
  • Glycosyl compound
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Oxane
  • Pyran
  • Acetamide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Acetal
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Ether
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
OntologyNo ontology term
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physical stateSolid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionNot Available
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSHyaluronic acid, non-derivatized, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0zmi-5907200000-c7cdc234286c4e8d9b0eSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSHyaluronic acid, 3 TMS, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00vi-8901088000-5c9d030006bc25564502Spectrum
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-05p9-0293700000-8545d3c5163ea9ba28d4Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014u-0491000000-22f791ffd12caad364a0Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00mx-7890000000-b278641c86ec93e98ab7Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-05gi-3549700000-37441b787ff2982e9e99Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-07cu-4495200000-90009632cf2bd8358107Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9300000000-51522ded26ff2cd92c4eSpectrum
NMRNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
ChEMBL IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC00518
Pubchem Compound ID53477741
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDNot Available
EAFUS IDNot Available
Dr. Duke IDNot Available
BIGG ID35227
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
HET IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDHyaluronic acid
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / BioactivitiesNot Available
NameGene NameUniProt ID
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4UGT2B4P06133
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4UGT1A4P22310
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7UGT2B7P16662
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1UGT1A1P22309
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9UGT1A9O60656
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6UGT1A6P19224
Neurocan core proteinNCANO14594
CD44 antigenCD44P16070
Aggrecan core proteinACANP16112
Tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 proteinTNFAIP6P98066
Brevican core proteinBCANQ96GW7
Versican core proteinVCANP13611
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
FlavoursNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference