Record Information
Creation date2010-04-08 22:05:34 UTC
Update date2019-11-26 02:58:07 UTC
Primary IDFDB002906
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB NameGlycerol tridodecanoate
DescriptionTG(12:0/12:0/12:0) or trilauric glyceride is a tridodecanoic acid triglyceride or medium chain triglyceride. Triglycerides (TGs) are also known as triacylglycerols or triacylglycerides, meaning that they are glycerides in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acid groups (i.e. fatty acid tri-esters of glycerol). TGs may be divided into three general types with respect to their acyl substituents. They are simple or monoacid if they contain only one type of fatty acid, diacid if they contain two types of fatty acids and triacid if three different acyl groups. Chain lengths of the fatty acids in naturally occurring triglycerides can be of varying lengths and saturations but 16, 18 and 20 carbons are the most common. TG(12:0/12:0/12:0), in particular, consists of one chain of dodecanoic acid at the C-1 position, one chain of dodecanoic acid at the C-2 position and one chain of dodecanoic acid at the C-3 position. TGs are the main constituent of vegetable oil and animal fats. TGs are major components of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicrons, play an important role in metabolism as energy sources and transporters of dietary fat. They contain more than twice the energy (9 kcal/g) of carbohydrates and proteins. In the intestine, triglycerides are split into glycerol and fatty acids (this process is called lipolysis) with the help of lipases and bile secretions, which can then move into blood vessels. The triglycerides are rebuilt in the blood from their fragments and become constituents of lipoproteins, which deliver the fatty acids to and from fat cells among other functions. Various tissues can release the free fatty acids and take them up as a source of energy. Fat cells can synthesize and store triglycerides. When the body requires fatty acids as an energy source, the hormone glucagon signals the breakdown of the triglycerides by hormone-sensitive lipase to release free fatty acids. As the brain cannot utilize fatty acids as an energy source, the glycerol component of triglycerides can be converted into glucose for brain fuel when it is broken down. (, TAGs can serve as fatty acid stores in all cells, but primarily in adipocytes of adipose tissue. The major building block for the synthesis of triacylglycerides, in non-adipose tissue, is glycerol. Adipocytes lack glycerol kinase and so must use another route to TAG synthesis. Specifically, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), which is produced during glycolysis, is the precursor for TAG synthesis in adipose tissue. DHAP can also serve as a TAG precursor in non-adipose tissues, but does so to a much lesser extent than glycerol. The use of DHAP for the TAG backbone depends on whether the synthesis of the TAGs occurs in the mitochondria and ER or the ER and the peroxisomes. The ER/mitochondria pathway requires the action of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase to convert DHAP to glycerol-3-phosphate. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase then esterifies a fatty acid to glycerol-3-phosphate thereby generating lysophosphatidic acid. The ER/peroxisome reaction pathway uses the peroxisomal enzyme DHAP acyltransferase to acylate DHAP to acyl-DHAP which is then reduced by acyl-DHAP reductase. The fatty acids that are incorporated into TAGs are activated to acyl-CoAs through the action of acyl-CoA synthetases. Two molecules of acyl-CoA are esterified to glycerol-3-phosphate to yield 1,2-diacylglycerol phosphate (also known as phosphatidic acid). The phosphate is then removed by phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP1), to generate 1,2-diacylglycerol. This diacylglycerol serves as the substrate for addition of the third fatty acid to make TAG. Intestinal monoacylglycerols, derived from dietary fats, can also serve as substrates for the synthesis of 1,2-diacylglycerols. [HMDB]. Glycerol tridodecanoate is found in sweet bay.
CAS Number538-24-9
Dodecanoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl esterHMDB
Glycerin trilaurateHMDB
Glycerol trilaurateHMDB
Glyceryl tridodecanoateHMDB
Glyceryl trilaurateHMDB
Lauric acid triglycerideHMDB
Lauric acid triglycerin esterHMDB
Propane-1,2,3-triyl trilaurateHMDB
TG 12:0/12:0/12:0HMDB
Tridodecanoyl glycerolHMDB
Dodecanoate 1,2,3-propanetriyl esterHMDB
Glycerin trilauric acidHMDB
Glycerol trilauric acidHMDB
Glyceryl tridodecanoic acidHMDB
Glyceryl trilauric acidHMDB
Laate triglycerideHMDB
Laic acid triglycerideHMDB
Laate triglycerin esterHMDB
Laic acid triglycerin esterHMDB
Propane-1,2,3-triyl trilauric acidHMDB
Glycerin trilaateHMDB
Glycerin trilaic acidHMDB
Glycerol trilaateHMDB
Glycerol trilaic acidHMDB
Glyceryl trilaateHMDB
Glyceryl trilaic acidHMDB
Propane-1,2,3-triyl trilaateHMDB
Propane-1,2,3-triyl trilaic acidHMDB
TG(12:0/12:0/12:0)Lipid Annotator, ChEBI
1,2,3-Propanetriol tridodecanoatebiospider
1,2,3-Propanetriyl tridodecanoatedb_source
2,3-Bis(dodecanoyloxy)propyl lauratebiospider
Dodecanoic acid, 1,1',1''-(1,2,3-propanetriyl) esterbiospider
Dodecanoic acid, 1,2,3-propanetriyl esterbiospider
Dodecanoic acid, 1,2,3-propantriyl esterbiospider
Dodecanoic acid, tri-ester with glycerolbiospider
Laurin, tri-biospider
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility1.3e-05 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area78.9 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count38ChemAxon
Refractivity186.08 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability82.63 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC39H74O6
IUPAC name1,3-bis(dodecanoyloxy)propan-2-yl dodecanoate
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C39H74O6/c1-4-7-10-13-16-19-22-25-28-31-37(40)43-34-36(45-39(42)33-30-27-24-21-18-15-12-9-6-3)35-44-38(41)32-29-26-23-20-17-14-11-8-5-2/h36H,4-35H2,1-3H3
Average Molecular Weight639.0013
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight638.5485401
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as triacylglycerols. These are glycerides consisting of three fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
Sub ClassTriradylcglycerols
Direct ParentTriacylglycerols
Alternative Parents
  • Triacyl-sn-glycerol
  • Tricarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Fatty acid ester
  • Fatty acyl
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physiological effect

Health effect:


Route of exposure:

Biological location:



Naturally occurring process:


Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physical stateSolid
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionC 73.31%; H 11.67%; O 15.02%DFC
Melting PointMp 46.5°DFC
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water SolubilityNot Available
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical RotationNot Available
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGlycerol tridodecanoate, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-001l-3751900000-186ab5f4aeb9dcd0e97bSpectrum
GC-MSGlycerol tridodecanoate, non-derivatized, GC-MS Spectrumsplash10-001l-3751900000-186ab5f4aeb9dcd0e97bSpectrum
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0000009000-f0a58fa5fad480d99bafSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0000009000-f0a58fa5fad480d99bafSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-0000907000-ab658a63ebc1bf1cb2e9Spectrum
NMRNot Available
ChemSpider ID10394
ChEMBL IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC00422
Pubchem Compound ID10851
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDCPD40-V:CPD40-V
EAFUS IDNot Available
BIGG IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
HET IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / BioactivitiesNot Available
NameGene NameUniProt ID
Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, muscle isoformCPT1BQ92523
Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, liver isoformCPT1AP50416
Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2, mitochondrialCPT2P23786
Liver carboxylesterase 1CES1P23141
Pancreatic triacylglycerol lipasePNLIPP16233
Hepatic triacylglycerol lipaseLIPCP11150
Lysosomal acid lipase/cholesteryl ester hydrolaseLIPAP38571
Inactive pancreatic lipase-related protein 1PNLIPRP1P54315
Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3PNPLA3Q9NST1
Gastric triacylglycerol lipaseLIPFP07098
Endothelial lipaseLIPGQ9Y5X9
Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1DGAT1O75907
Pancreatic lipase-related protein 2PNLIPRP2P54317
Lipoprotein lipaseLPLP06858
Monoglyceride lipaseMGLLQ99685
Protein disulfide-isomeraseP4HBP07237
2-acylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2MOGAT2Q3SYC2
Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 4PNPLA4P41247
Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2DGAT2Q96PD7
2-acylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1MOGAT1Q96PD6
2-acylglycerol O-acyltransferase 3MOGAT3Q86VF5
Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 3AGPAT9Q53EU6
Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 2PNPLA2Q96AD5
Pancreatic lipase-related protein 3PNLIPRP3Q17RR3
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
FlavoursNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference— Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).