Record Information
Creation date2010-04-08 22:11:51 UTC
Update date2019-11-26 03:11:37 UTC
Primary IDFDB015466
Secondary Accession NumbersNot Available
Chemical Information
FooDB NameAucubin
DescriptionAucubin is a monoterpenoid based compound. Aucubin, like all iridoids, has a cyclopentan-[C]-pyran skeleton. Iridoids can consist of ten, nine, or rarely eight carbons in which C11 is more frequently missing than C10. Aucubin has 10 carbons with the C11 carbon missing. The stereochemical configurations at C5 and C9 lead to cis fused rings, which are common to all iridoids containing carbocylclic- or seco-skeleton in non-rearranged form. Oxidative cleavage at C7-C8 bond affords secoiridoids. The last steps in the biosynthesis of iridoids usually consist of O-glycosylation and O-alkylation. Aucubin, a glycoside iridoid, has an O-linked glucose moiety.; Aucubin is an iridoid glycoside. Iridoids are commonly found in plants and function as defensive compounds. Irioids decrease the growth rates of many generalist herbivores. Aucubin is found in the leaves of Aucuba japonica (Cornaceae), Eucommia ulmoides (Eucommiaceae), and Plantago asiatic (Plantaginaceae), etc, plants used in traditional Chinese and folk medicine. Aucubin was found to protect against liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride or alpha-amanitin in mice and rats when 80 mg/kg was dosed intraperitoneally.; Geranyl pyrophosphate is the precursor for iridoids. Geranyl phosphate is generated through the mevalonate pathway or the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. The initial steps of the pathway involve the fusion of three molecules of acetyl-CoA to produce the C6 compound 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA). HMG-CoA is then reduced in two steps by the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase. The resulting mevalonate is then sequentially phosphorylated by two separate kinases, mevalonate kinase and phosphomevalonate kinase, to form 5-pyrophosphomevalonate. Phosphosphomevalonate decarboxylase through a concerted decarboxylation reaction affords isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP). IPP is the basic C5 building block that is added to prenyl phosphate cosubstrates to form longer chains. IPP is isomerized to the allylic ester dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) by IPP isomerase. Through a multistep process, including the dephosphorylation DMAPP, IPP and DMAPP are combinded to from the C10 compound geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP). Geranyl pyrophosphate is a major branch point for terpenoid synthesis.; The cyclizaton reaction to form the iridoid pyrane ring may result from one of two routes: route 1 - a hydride nucleophillic attack on C1 will lead to 1-O-carbonyl atom attack on C3, yielding the lactone ring; route 2 - loss of proton from carbon 4 leads to the formation of a double bond C3-C4; consequently the 3-0-carbonyl atom will attach to C1.
CAS Number479-98-1
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility50 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.2ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count9ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area149.07 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity79.18 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability33.65 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Chemical FormulaC15H22O9
IUPAC name2-{[5-hydroxy-7-(hydroxymethyl)-1H,4aH,5H,7aH-cyclopenta[c]pyran-1-yl]oxy}-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C15H22O9/c16-4-6-3-8(18)7-1-2-22-14(10(6)7)24-15-13(21)12(20)11(19)9(5-17)23-15/h1-3,7-21H,4-5H2
Average Molecular Weight346.3298
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight346.126382302
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as iridoid o-glycosides. These are iridoid monoterpenes containing a glycosyl (usually a pyranosyl) moiety linked to the iridoid skeleton.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassTerpene glycosides
Direct ParentIridoid O-glycosides
Alternative Parents
  • Iridoid o-glycoside
  • Hexose monosaccharide
  • Glycosyl compound
  • Iridoid-skeleton
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Bicyclic monoterpenoid
  • Monoterpenoid
  • Monosaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Acetal
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available

Route of exposure:

Biological location:



Naturally occurring process:


Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physico-Chemical Properties - Experimental
Physical stateNot Available
Physical DescriptionNot Available
Mass CompositionC 52.02%; H 6.40%; O 41.58%DFC
Melting PointMp 181°DFC
Boiling PointNot Available
Experimental Water Solubility356 mg/mL at 20 oCBEILSTEIN
Experimental logPNot Available
Experimental pKaNot Available
Isoelectric pointNot Available
ChargeNot Available
Optical Rotation[a]21D -171.4 (H2O)DFC
Spectroscopic UV DataNot Available
DensityNot Available
Refractive IndexNot Available
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSAucubin, non-derivatized, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00or-4719000000-a03c5ea19b82d7991f35Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSAucubin, 4 TMS, Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - 70eV, Positivesplash10-01b9-2252049000-fb4fdbe14aa2fef93db3Spectrum
TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-02vr-0904000000-0dc8cc1fee5ec1d7b66aSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-0901000000-23ae99445d0f902ebb10Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014i-1900000000-0197bf91c00175908c8fSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00nb-0917000000-5b5a2c303dee5ed5b778Spectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0159-1901000000-dcbc777e43693cc64c6fSpectrum
Predicted MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001l-5900000000-66eed55623a37e730cdcSpectrum
NMRNot Available
ChemSpider ID308989
ChEMBL IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC09771
Pubchem Compound ID348157
Pubchem Substance IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Phenol-Explorer IDNot Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
CRC / DFC (Dictionary of Food Compounds) IDKCL41-H:KCL37-K
EAFUS IDNot Available
BIGG IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDC00003073
HET IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Flavornet IDNot Available
GoodScent IDNot Available
SuperScent IDNot Available
Wikipedia IDAucubin
Phenol-Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
Duplicate IDSNot Available
Old DFC IDSNot Available
Associated Foods
FoodContent Range AverageReference
Biological Effects and Interactions
Health Effects / Bioactivities
anti bacterial33282 A substance that kills or slows the growth of bacteria.DUKE
antidote50247 Any protective agent counteracting or neutralizing the action of poisons.DUKE
anti edemicDUKE
anti inflammatory35472 A substance that reduces or suppresses inflammation.DUKE
anti leukemic35610 A substance that inhibits or prevents the proliferation of neoplasms.DUKE
antioxidant22586 A substance that opposes oxidation or inhibits reactions brought about by dioxygen or peroxides. In European countries, E-numbers for permitted antioxidant food additives are from E 300 to E 324.DUKE
anti prolactinDUKE
anti staphylococcic33282 A substance that kills or slows the growth of bacteria.DUKE
cathartic75325 Any substance that accelerates defecation. Compare with laxatives, which are substances that ease defecation (usually by softening faeces). A substance can be both a laxative and a cathartic.DUKE
diuretic35498 An agent that promotes the excretion of urine through its effects on kidney function.DUKE
hepatoprotective62868 Any compound that is able to prevent damage to the liver.DUKE
laxative50503 An agent that produces a soft formed stool, and relaxes and loosens the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve constipation. Compare with cathartic, which is a substance that accelerates defecation. A substances can be both a laxative and a cathartic.DUKE
pesticide25944 Strictly, a substance intended to kill pests. In common usage, any substance used for controlling, preventing, or destroying animal, microbiological or plant pests.DUKE
RNA inhibitor35222 A substance that diminishes the rate of a chemical reaction.DUKE
EnzymesNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
BiosynthesisNot Available
Organoleptic Properties
FlavoursNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferenceNot Available
Content Reference— Duke, James. 'Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture.' Agricultural Research Service, Accessed April 27 (2004).
— Shinbo, Y., et al. 'KNApSAcK: a comprehensive species-metabolite relationship database.' Plant Metabolomics. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006. 165-181.